Muhammad is an independent journalist and researcher based in Indonesia, Qatar, and the UK. His areas of research focus primarily on China's foreign policy in the Middle East, Indonesia-Middle East relations, Indonesian politics, and disability rights. Muhammad has lived in the Middle East for the past nine years and has traveled extensively across the region. He holds a B.A. in International Affairs from Qatar University and an M.A. in International Politics from the University of Manchester. He is currently pursuing a Ph.D on Chinese regional hegemony at Manchester.