18 Fascinating Women Who Have Tried To Run For President Since 1872

These women paved the way for the Hillary Clintons and Carly Fiorinas of the world.
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This year, Hillary Clinton has come closer than ever before to becoming the first female presidential nominee for a major party -- and potentially the first female president of the United States. But before there was Hillz and Carly, there was Victoria Claflin Woodhul. And Shirley Chisolm. And Sonia Johnson.

In total, there have been 49 women who have sought party nomination for the presidency, and 35 women who have run as party nominees. Some, like Gracie Allen of the "Surprise Party" ran as stunt candidates, some ran to make a political statement, like Socialist Workers Party nominee Linda Jenness, and some truly intended to earn the most important office in the country.

At the beginning of Women's History Month, as we're in the middle of a fiery presidential primary, seems like the perfect time to reflection the women that came before -- and paved the way -- for political figures like Hillary Clinton and Carly Fiorina.

Below are 18 women -- in chronological order -- who have attempted to crack that very highest glass ceiling:

Victoria Claflin Woodhul, Equal Rights Party (1872)
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Victoria Claflin Woodhul holds the distinction as the first woman to run for president of the United States, ever. A key figure in the suffrage movement, Woodhul invited abolitionist Frederick Douglass as her vice president (though it is unknown whether he ever formally accepted the nomination) as a candidate of the Equal Rights party.

Though her presidential bid was unsuccessful, Woodhul remained a key force in the suffragette movement. She was also one of the first female stockbrokers on Wall Street, and cofounded her own brokerage firm Woodhull, Claflin & Company in 1870.
Belva Ann Lockwood, Equal Rights Party (1884)
Belva Ann Lockwood became the first woman to run a full national presidential campaign in the United States, when she ran under the National Equal Rights Party in 1884. She was also one of the first practicing female lawyers in America.
Margaret Chase Smith, Republican Party (1964)
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In 1964, Margaret Chase Smith became the first woman to have her name placed in nomination for president at a major political party's convention. She was also the first woman elected to serve in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Bella Abzug, Democratic Party (1972)
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A member of Congress and passionate civil rights and feminist activist, Abzug sought to win the Democratic nomination in 1972.
Patsy Takemoto Mink, Democratic Party (1972)
1972 was a huge year for women and the presidential race, as several women made nomination bids. Patsy Mink, a member of Congress, was the first Asian American to run for nomination in a major political party when she sought out the Democratic nomination.
Shirley Chisolm, Democratic Party (1972)
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In 1972, activist Shirley Chisholm became the first black major-party candidate to run for president, and the first woman to run for the Democratic party presidential nomination.
Linda Osteen Jenness, Socialist Workers Party (1972)
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In 1972, Linda Jenness ran against Richard Nixon on the general election ballot in 25 states under the Socialist Workers Party. She was technically too young to run for president under the Constitution, at just 31. Jenness's presidential bid was mostly a statement in defiance of the Nixon government.
Sonia Johnson, Peace and Freedom Party (1984)
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Sonia Johnson was a former Mormon who broke with the church when it publicly opposed the Equal Rights Amendment. In 1984, she ran for president as a U.S. Citizens Party and Peace and Freedom Party candidate.
Patricia Scott Schroeder, Democratic Party (1987)
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Schroeder became Colorado's first Congresswoman in 1972. In 1987, she sought the Democratic Party nomination but lost to Michael Dukakis.
Lenora Fulani, American New Alliance Party (1988, 1992)
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Fulani ran as a third party candidate in 1988 and 1992 under the American New Alliance Party.
Elizabeth Dole, Republican Party (2000)
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While her husband unsuccessfully ran for president in 1996, Elizabeth Dole made a bid for the Republican presidential nomination in 2000, raising over $5 million for her campaign. However, she ended her campaign before the first primary.
Carol Moseley Braun, Democratic Party (2004)
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Braun sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 2003, but ended her campaign in January 2004 due to a lack of money.
Cynthia McKinney, Green Party (2008)
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Cynthia McKinney secured a presidential nomination from the Green Party, an environmentalist political party, in 2008. McKinney served on Congress in Georgia for six terms.
Michelle Bachman, Republican Party (2012)
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Michelle Bachman ran a campaign to become the Republican candidate for president in 2012.
Roseanne Barr, Peace and Freedom Party (2012)
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In 2012 Roseanne Barr ran for president under the Peace and Freedom Party. She first announced her plans on The Tonight Show in 2011, joking that she was running as a member of the "Green Tea Party." Later, she was nominated as candidate for the Peace and Freedom Party.
Jill Stein, Green Party (2012, 2016)
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In 2012 Jill Stein won the presidential nomination of the Green Party. She's also the party's 2016 candidate.
Carly Fiorina, Republican Party (2016)
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This presidential race, Carly Fiorina, former chairman and chief executive officer of Hewlett-Packard Co, sought the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 elections.
Hillary Clinton, Democratic Party (2008, 2016)
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Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton ran as US Democratic presidential candidate in 2008, and is now running again against Senator Bernie Sanders (D-Vt.) for the 2016 presidential election.
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