Every Wednesday is Tip Day.
This Wednesday: six tips for battling loneliness.
The more I've learned about happiness, the more I've come to believe that loneliness is a terrible, common, and important obstacle to consider.
A while back, after reading John Cacioppo's fascinating book Loneliness, I posted Some counter-intuitive facts about loneliness, and several people responded by asking, "Okay, but what do I do about it? What steps can I take to feel less lonely?"
I recently finished another fascinating book, Lonely -- a memoir by Emily White, about her own experiences and research into loneliness. White doesn't attempt to give specific advice about how to combat loneliness, but from her book, I gleaned these strategies:
1. Remember that although the distinction can be difficult to draw, loneliness and solitude are different. White observes, "It's entirely reasonable to feel lonely yet still feel as though you need some time to yourself." Loneliness feels draining, distracting, and upsetting; desired solitude feels peaceful, creative, restorative.
2. Nurturing others -- raising children, teaching, caring for animals -- helps to alleviate loneliness.
3. Keep in mind that to avoid loneliness, many people need both a social circle and an intimate attachment. Having one of these elements may still leave you feeling lonely.
4. Work hard to get your sleep. One of the most common indicators of loneliness is broken sleep -- taking a long time to fall asleep, waking frequently, and feeling sleepy during the day. Sleep deprivation, under any circumstances, brings down people's moods, makes them more likely to get sick, and dampens their energy, so it's important to tackle this issue. (Here are some tips on getting good sleep.)
5. Try to figure out what's missing from your life. White observes that making lots of plans with friends didn't alleviate her loneliness. "What I wanted," she writes, "was the quiet presence of another person." She longed to have someone else just hanging around the house with her. The more clearly you see what's lacking, the more clearly you'll see possible solutions.
6. Take steps to connect with other people (to state the obvious). Negative emotions like loneliness, envy, and guilt have an important role to play in a happy life; they're big, flashing signs that something needs to change. The pain of loneliness can prod you to connect with other people. Unfortunately, loneliness itself can make people feel more negative, critical, and judgmental. If you recognize that your loneliness may be affecting you in that way, you can take steps to counter it.
Most people have suffered from loneliness at some point. Have you found any good strategies for making yourself less lonely? What worked -- or didn't work?
* My friend Stuart Vance just started a very cool site where he posts his iPhone art: ArrghPtoo!
* If you'd like a free, personalized bookplate for your copy of the print book of The Happiness Project, or if you read an e-book, audiobook, or library book and you'd like a free, personalized signature card (with the Paradoxes of Happiness on the back), email me at gretchenrubin1 at gmail dot com. Ask for either, or both; feel free to ask for as many as you'd like; I mail them anywhere in the world. But be sure to include your mailing address!
If you've already written to me but haven't received your signature card yet -- I'm sorry. I've had many more requests than I expected, and ran out almost immediately. The new ones should arrive very soon, and then I'll send them out as quickly as possible.