As President Santos meets with President Obama on December 3, 2013, it's time to say yes to peace.
In November, the Colombian government and the FARC guerrilla group signed an agreement, the second of five agreements which together will make up a final peace accord. With this second agreement, two of the most difficult topics -- land and political participation -- have been negotiated, showing that this peace process has a real chance to end a 50-year war in which hundreds of thousands of people have been killed, kidnapped and disappeared, and some 6 million people have been forcibly displaced.
The U.S. government should decisively support this peace process, Colombia's best hope for a sustainable peace in decades. U.S. policymakers should also consider how best to support a peace accord financially once negotiations are finalized, including by reorienting aid away from military assistance and towards demobilization and reintegration programs; support for victims of violence; and mechanisms for truth, justice and reparations. The U.S. government should also encourage the Colombian government to open peace negotiations with Colombia's remaining, smaller guerrilla groups.
The Colombian government should facilitate greater participation for victims of violence -- including Afro-Colombian and indigenous people and women -- in the peace process and its implementation. Strong measures of truth, justice, reparations and guarantees of non-repetition are essential if this agreement is to produce a just and lasting peace, as this letter by a wide range of U.S. faith-based organizations emphasizes.
But Colombia cannot achieve a sustainable peace without addressing its core human rights problems. Colombia's human rights crisis is far from over.
The Colombian government must make greater progress in dismantling paramilitary successor groups. In November 2013 alone, more than 2,700 people (largely Afro-Colombian) were displaced in Buenaventura allegedly by paramilitary successor groups. These brutal groups are also responsible for many of the threats and attacks against human rights defenders and are an obstacle to implementing the government's land restitution program. Dismantling paramilitary successor groups -- including by investigating and prosecuting the members of the military and police, local politicians, government officials, large landowners and companies that continue to finance and collude with them -- is essential for human rights progress in Colombia.
Colombia must bring to justice the cases of the more than 3,000 alleged extrajudicial executions, most attributed to the armed forces, committed in the past decade. The Colombian Constitutional Court's decision to overturn the new, controversial law that would have expanded military jurisdiction affords the Santos administration an opportunity to move forward, not backward, and ensure that human rights crimes allegedly committed by soldiers are effectively tried in civilian courts. Progress in bringing to justice cases of sexual violence committed by all armed actors is also essential.
The Colombian judicial system must make advances in prosecuting threats and attacks against human rights defenders. Those who defend human rights continue to face grave risks for their work, yet attacks against them are almost never investigated, let alone prosecuted. Though the Santos administration has implemented important protection programs, it is essential to confront the problem at its source by ending impunity in attacks against defenders.
The Colombian government must meet its obligations to respect labor rights. To secure passage of the U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement -- which faced significant public and congressional opposition -- the U.S. and Colombian governments signed a Labor Action Plan (LAP) that laid out steps that the Colombian government agreed to take in order to protect labor unionists and increase respect for labor rights. The Colombian and U.S. governments must fulfill the pledge they made to the U.S. and Colombian publics by signing this plan.
While the number of deaths of labor union members has declined and Colombia has created institutions and passed laws, respect for labor rights has not improved on the ground. At least 11 trade unionists have been murdered in 2013 and hundreds have received death threats. As highlighted in a congressional report, "The U.S.-Colombia Labor Action Plan: Failing on the Ground," indirect employment is still pervasive and growing, the inspection system is ineffective, workers' protections are weak and the right to organize is routinely denied.
Finally, the Colombian government must make progress in safe and sustainable land restitution for victims of forced displacement as well as land titling for Afro-Colombian and indigenous communities. The Santos Administration's Victims' Law represents a historic opportunity for land restitution to Colombia's internally displaced population and reparations for victims of violence. However, land restitution has been extremely slow, and even the vast majority of those who receive restitution are not yet able to return safely to their lands, as the structures that caused displacement remain intact (see Human Rights Watch's The Risk of Returning Home and Latin America Working Group's Far from the Promised Land). Land titling of Afro-Colombian and indigenous communities is also proceeding at a snail's pace. Land restitution cannot take place safely without more decisive action by the Colombian government to address the sources of violence from all armed actors -- including paramilitaries, guerrillas and the armed forces -- that caused people to flee their homes in the first place. It is especially crucial to dismantle the illegal paramilitary successor groups that still wage violence in the countryside, as well as to investigate and prosecute state and private actors that aid or employ them. The Colombian government should also ramp up legal services and protection for victims, and increase protection for land judges.
Colombia is still experiencing a human rights crisis. But if a peace accord is finalized in the near future, and if the Colombian government increases its attention to these human rights and labor rights issues, there is a real chance that Colombians -- including those caught for decades in one of the world's most brutal conflicts -- can live their lives in peace.
This blog was written by Lisa Haugaard, Latin America Working Group with Gimena Sánchez-Garzoli, Washington Office on Latin America; Dana Brown, US Office on Colombia; and Abigail Poe, Center for International Policy.