Of course, discovering propellantless propulsion is based on the assumption that the physics of propellantless propulsion does exist. The now defunct Alcubierre Warp Drive and string theories, point to the need for care and empirical proof that the physics of propellantless propulsion does exist.

Let's deconstruct.

In part 1 of this article I had suggested that a gravitational field can be structured into three parts, the source, the field & the field effect as determined by the massless *g=tau.c^2*. In addition that the mass source could be replaced by the Omega function (a yet to be determined function that behaves like the mass source). Thereby, having an engine generate the Omega function would clearly be the first step to propellantless propulsion.

To prove that the physics of propellantless propulsion exists, we need to show three conditions are met. First, that gravitational acceleration is independent of its gravitating mass source, i.e. that the field structure is all that is required to accelerate an object. Second, that the omega function can be non-mass function. And third, to modify a gravitational field in a manner that departs from it natural direction.

The first condition, acceleration is independent of the gravitating mass was proved correct with *g=tau.c^2*. Mass does not appear in this formula. Sure there is a linkage between mass and acceleration but *g=tau.c^2* breaks this linkage into its component parts. *Tau* is the change in the time dilation transformation divided by the distance across this change in the *local* spacetime of the object. Note, Einstein used the *local* spacetime of a falling object to prove the Principle of Equivalence.

To effect an acceleration on an object we only need to modify the *spatial gradient* of the time dilation transformations in the object's local spacetime. This spatial gradient field is named the *Non Inertia (Ni) Field*. In a gravitational field these transformations are governed by the Newtonian Gravitational Transformations (NGT). From an engineering perspective, at lower velocities, NGT and General Relativity produce the same effects. First condition met.

The second condition, that a non-mass omega function exists, is easiest to prove if we can prove that gravity is not caused by mass. This I did. In my book Super Physics for Super Technologies, I proposed that mass is a proxy for the amount of matter causing the gravitational fields. That part of matter that causes the gravitational fields is the quark motion in the atomic nuclei/nucleons. That is, it is subatomic motion, not mass, that causes spacetime to deform into gravitational fields. Additionally, in Bad, Bad, Bad Physics, I showed how the motion of the Laithwaite Big Wheel experiment alters the gravitational field. That *both* nano-scale and macro-scale motion create/modify gravitational fields. This is a significant step forward compared to contemporary physics which requires mass without explaining *how* mass causes this spacetime deformation. Second condition met.

The third condition, ability to modify the gravitational field, is vindicated by both the Laithwaite experiments, and the Podkletnov experiments. Podkletnov showed that gravity shielding was observable but others could not reproduce his experiments. Not because he was wrong but because these physicists could not reach the experimental conditions required of them. Third condition met.

To strengthen this case, electron motion in a magnetic field can be modeled *exactly* with *Ni Fields*. Nature provides an electromagnetic method to producing accelerations.

Therefore, the physics of propellantless propulsion does exist. QED.

The three parts of the gravitational field (source, field and effect) inform us on how to design propellantless propulsion. In A Theory for Momentum Exchange, I had explained that Nature exhibits shape-motion duality or velocity by particle shape deformation per NGT and LFT (Lorentz-FitzGerald Transformation). These are instantaneously concomitant effects. Note, unlike General Relativity which requires the altering the structural shape of spacetime with Ni Fields we are altering this shape-motion duality of matter in the spacecraft to effect motion.

Thus, using fields to alter particle shape deformation will produce the concomitant velocity and acceleration effects. This implies that a *wrap field* that wraps the spacecraft would only need to modify subatomic particle shapes just as gravity does. This *wrap field* propulsion is safe as all matter in the *wrap field* is simultaneously moving in the same direction and no relative motion exists between objects within the spacecraft.

The *wrap field* engine design should allow for two field properties, field modulation, and field vectoring. Field modulation is the ability to modify the field strength, and therefore the magnitude of the acceleration. Field vectoring is the ability to modify the field direction and therefore, the direction of this acceleration. Imagine if we could affect directional changes akin to the Phased Array Radar, the direction change would be practically instantaneous.

More in a future post. I will continue to post as much of the non-proprietary information I have researched. This is so that by placing much of my work into the public domain, the US Patent Office (USPTO) cannot issue patents to other private interests for technology designs based on my work.