Historians Speak Out On Civil Rights And Civil Liberties In Dangerous Times

The 2016 election results raise serious concerns for Americans concerned about the protection of civil rights and basic constitutional liberties. Over 1200 of us have signed a statement placing some of these concerns into stark historical context and suggesting ways to use historical knowledge and awareness of past missteps as part of what we call informed citizenship.”

We urge all Americans to consider carefully the lessons of historical experience as they contemplate next steps, as the Electoral College prepares to convene, and as the President-Elect continues to assemble a cabinet that appears dedicated to rolling back decades of accomplishments and forward progress on equality and inclusion in our gloriously diverse nation. Following are the text and list of signatories on the statement we release today.

As scholars of United States history and related fields, we have experienced concern and alarm as we went from a divisive campaign season to the election of Donald Trump as our president-elect. On the eve of a new administration whose key players have traded in hateful rhetoric and emboldened the harassment of various targets, we urge Americans to be vigilant against a mass violation of civil rights and liberties that could result if such troubling developments continue unchecked. Looking back on World War II and the Cold War, we recognize how easily the rights of people have been suspended during times of great uncertainty. A key lesson of such ordeals has been to never again repeat these mistakes, and so we issue a call to recognize and act upon the critical links between historical knowledge, informed citizenship, and the protection of civil and human rights. During World War II, in the wake of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. officials justified the imprisonment of 120,000 Japanese Americans--U.S. and foreign born, most of whom were U.S. citizens--with the argument of “military necessity.” In the ensuing early Cold War era, the McCarthyist “witch hunts,” House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigations, and registry of communists and their sympathizers destroyed the lives of countless teachers, artists, politicians, and others. These historical persecutions have since been widely repudiated by scholars and elected leaders. For instance, the 1988 Civil Liberties Act signed by President Reagan and passed by a bipartisan Congress acknowledged internment as a mistake fueled by racism. It stated, “The internment of the individuals of Japanese ancestry was caused by racial prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership.” The Cold War witch hunts associated with Joseph McCarthy were roundly denounced by Republicans and Democrats during the 1954 Army-McCarthy Senate hearings. Decades of research, debate, and analysis have brought historians to a consensus that episodes like internment and McCarthyism were misguided and immoral, and should never be repeated. Internationally the United States has been engaged in a war on terror, and domestically the election made clear that we are in an ideological “culture war.” And while we find ourselves in a distinct moment compared to World War II and the Cold War, we are seeing the return of familiar calls against perceived enemies. Alarmingly, justifications for a Muslim registry have cited Japanese American imprisonment during World War II as a credible precedent, and the Professor Watchlist—which speciously identifies “un-patriotic professors”--is eerily similar to the communist registry of the McCarthy era. Looking back to history provides copious lessons on what is at stake when we allow hysteria and untruths to trample people’s rights. We know the consequences, and it is possible, with vigilance and a clear eye on history, to prevent tragedy before it is too late. It is not just that we are at the cusp of what may be a massive rollback of civil rights and liberties, but our culture is also mired in confusion about facts vs. misinformation and a rebellion against knowledge and critical thinking. This makes our present moment doubly dangerous. Though we cannot know for certain what is ahead, we urge all Americans to enter the coming months with lessons of the past in mind, and to draw upon them to stand up for the protection of all people’s civil rights and liberties. We sign this statement as individual scholars. Institutions are listed for identification purposes only. Shana Bernstein Northwestern University Shelley Lee Oberlin College Kim Cary Warren University of Kansas

Susan Abram Western Carolina University Martin Adamian California State University, Los Angeles Gretchen A. Adams Texas Tech University John Lewis Adams Bard High School Early College-Cleveland Kevin Adams Kent State University Cameron Addis Austin Community College Paul Adler Harvard University Peter-Christian Aigner The Graduate Center, CUNY Naila Al Hasan University of Maryland, College Park Jose M. Alamillo California State University Channel Islands Crystal Alegria The Extreme History Project Shawn Leigh Alexander University of Kansas Keli Allen Historian Henry Allen Jr Bunker Hill Community College Yvonne Almore St. Louis University Benjamin L. Alpers University of Oklahoma Rebecca Amato New York University Edith Ambrose Southeastern Louisiana University Lisa Andersen The Juilliard School David M. Anderson Louisiana Tech University Electa Anderson El Toro High School Karen Anderson University of Arizona M. Christine Anderson Xavier University Anne-Marie Angelo University of Sussex Marcia Annisette York University , Toronto Joyce Antler Brandeis University Lauren Araiza Denison University Heidi Ardizzone Saint Louis University Michelle Armstrong-Partida University of Texas at El Paso Stanley Keith Arnold Northern Illinois University Silvia Arrom Brandeis University Susan Youngblood Ashmore Oxford College of Emory University Steven M. Avella Marquette University Jonathon Derek Awtrey Louisiana State University K. Kevyne Baar Independent Scholar Matthew Babcock University of North Texas at Dallas Matthew Backes Rutgers University Aaron Bae Arizona State University John Baesler Saginaw Valley State University Beth Bailey University of Kansas Tanya Bakhmetyeva University of Rochester Kathleen Balgley Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo (retired) Shelby M. Balik Metropolitan State University of Denver Sarah Ball Northwest Vista College Frank Barajas California State University Channel Islands Jenifer L. Barclay Washington State University Matthew Barlow University of Massachusetts, Amherst Laura Barraclough Yale University Dawson Barrett Del Mar College Kathryn Barrett-Gaines University of Maryland Eastern Shore Eliza Young Barstow Oregon State University - Corvallis Anne Clark Bartlett University of Washington Tacoma Amy Bass The College of New Rochelle Matthew Basso University of Utah Ray Batchelor Texas A&M University, College Station Jennifer Bates SUNY Stony Brook Katie Batza University of Kansas Jean Bauer Princeton University Kabria Baumgartner The College of Wooster Ashley Johnson Bavery Northwestern University William Joseph Bean Kent State University at Kent James Bearden SUNY Geneseo (emeritus) Jim Beauchesne Bread & Roses Heritage Committee Steven Beda University of Oregon Brian D. Behnken Iowa State University Justin Behrend SUNY Geneseo Maziar Behrooz San Francisco State University Elizabeth Belanger Hobart and William Smith Colleges Kathleen Belew University of Chicago Daniel Bender University of Toronto Ira Lee Benjamins Independent Scholar Gavin Benke Boston University Evan P. Bennett Florida Atlantic University Mandy Bennett Claremont Grauate University, Martin J. Bennett Santa Rosa Junior College (emeritus) Rhianna Bennett Georgia Southern University Albert I. Berger University of North Dakota Dan Berger University of Washington Bothell Jane Berger Moravian College William Bergmann Slippery Rock University Carol Berkin CUNY Aaron Berman Hampshire College Iver Bernstein Washington University St. Louis Stephen Berrey University of Michigan Daina Ramey Berry University of Texas Jennifer L. Bertolet The George Washington University Jim Bertolini Public Historian Daniel Bessner University of Washington Barbara Betz The Ohio State University Salonee Bhaman Yale University Steven Biel Harvard University Kenneth J. Bindas Kent State University Donna Binkiewicz California State University, Long Beach Martha Biondi Northwestern University Elizabeth Bishop Texas State University - San Marcos Peter Blackmer University of Massachusetts, Amherst Deborah L. Blackwell Texas A&M International University Darren Blaney University of Miami Kent Blansett University of Nebraska at Omaha John N. Blanton City College of New York, CUNY Jessica Blatt Marymount Manhattan College David W. Blight Yale University Sharon Block University of California, Irvine Ethan Blue University of Western Australia Eladio B. Bobadilla Duke University Charles C. Bolton University of North Carolina at Greensboro Janet Bordelon Kehillah Jewish High School Fergus M. Bordewich Independent Scholar Eileen Boris University of California, Santa Barbara Melissa Borja College of Staten Island, City University of New York Daniel Borses Riverside City College Heath Bowen St. Thomas Aquinas College Kevin Bower Nebraska Wesleyan University J. D. Bowers University of Missouri John P. Bowes Eastern Kentucky University Kevin Boyle Northwestern University Mark Philip Bradley University of Chicago Lisa M. Brady Boise State University Susan Bragg Georgia Southwestern State University Christopher Bram Gallatin School of New York University Allyson P. Brantley University of La Verne Tina Braxton Independent Historian and Activist Sheila A. Brennan George Mason University Sarah Bridger California Polytechnic State University Jennifer Brier University of Illinois at Chicago Stephen Brier CUNY Graduate Center Laura Briggs University of Massachusetts, Amherst Robert Brigham Vassar College Matthew M. Briones University of Chicago Nancy K. Bristow University of Puget Sound Kelly Britt Fordham University David Brodnax, Sr. Trinity Christian College David Brody University of California, Davis Charlotte Brooks Baruch College, CUNY James F. Brooks UC Santa Barbara Jennifer E. Brooks Auburn University Pam Brooks Oberlin College Joanne Brown Independent Scholar Lauren Erin Brown Marymount Manhattan College Nikki Brown University of New Orleans Joan C. Browning Independent Scholar & Freedom Rider Dann J. Broyld Central Connecticut State University Joan Jacobs Brumberg Cornell University David Brundage University of California, Santa Cruz Erika Bsumek University of Texas at Austin Nicholas Buccola Linfield College Peter Bunten Historic Hudson Valley Gretchen Burgess George Mason University Adrian Burgos. Jr. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Flannery Burke Saint Louis University Zoe Burkholder Montclair State University Kristen D. Burton Louisiana Tech University Mike Burton Santa Rosa Junior College Daniela Busciglio University of Oklahoma Melanie E.L. Bush Adelphi University Edouard Bustin Boston University (emeritus) Cara Caddoo Indiana University, Bloomington Mara Caden Yale University Susan K. Cahn University at Buffalo, SUNY Kathleen A. Cairns Cal Poly San Luis Obispo Jane E. Calvert University of Kentucky Albert M. Camarillo Stanford University Jordan T. Camp Brown University Mary Baine Campbell Brandeis University Emmet Campos University of Texas at Austin Margot Canaday Princeton University Amy Canfield Lewis-Clark State College Michael Cangemi Binghamton University Elaine Carey St. John's University Christopher Carmona University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Berenice Carroll Purdue University Justin Carroll Indiana University East James M. Carter Drew Iniversity Julian Carter California College of the Arts Tracey L. Carter Historian Leo Casey Albert Shanker Institute Sean Cashbaugh Independent Scholar Robert Cassanello University of Central Florida Rachael Cassidy University of New Mexico Antonia Castaneda Professor of History (retired) Pedro Castillo University of California, Santa Cruz Robert F. Castro California State University, Fullerton Peter Catapano CUNY New York City College of Technology Kathryn Catlin Northwestern University Derek Charles Catsam University of Texas of the Permian Basin Julian C. Chambliss Rollins College Alexandra Chan Monadnock Archaeological Consulting Laura Renée Chandler South Dakota State University Edmond Y. Chang University of Oregon Gordon H. Chang Stanford University Jason Oliver Chang University of Connecticut, Storrs Kornel Chang Rutgers University-Newark Joyce Chaplin Harvard University Jessica Chapman Williams College Marisa Chappell Oregon State University Katherine Mellen Charron NC State University Robert Chase Sonoma State University Sheree Chase Historian Philip Chassler University of Massachusetts Boston Ernesto Chávez University of Texas at El Paso Marisela Chávez California State University, Dominguez Hills Miroslava Chavez-Garcia University of California, Santa Barbara Michael Mark Chemers University of California, Santa Cruz Anthony S. Chen Northwestern University John Cheng Binghamton University Robert Cherny San Francisco State University (emeritus) Connie Chiang Bowdoin College Leisl Carr Childers University of Northern Iowa Michael Childers University of Northern Iowa Catherine Ceniza Choy University of California, Berkeley Samantha Christiansen Marywood University Jonathan M. Chu University of Massachusetts Boston Alexa Ilene Claremont History Teacher and Independent Scholar Daniel Clark Oakland University Elaine R. Cleeton State University of New York at Geneseo Catherine Clinton University of Texas at San Antonio Lori Clune California State University, Fresno Genevieve Clutario Harvard University Dustin Cohan University of Wisconsin-Madison Andrew Wender Cohen Syracuse University Julie Cohen California State Los Angeles Lizabeth Cohen Harvard University Miriam Cohen Vassar College Deborah Cohn Indiana University Bloomington Peter Cole Western Illinois University Stephen Cole Norte Dame de Namur University Arica L. Coleman Independent Scholar Brian S. Collier University of Notre Dame Bruce Conforth University of Michigan Tula A Connell Independent Scholar Catherine Conner North Carolina State University Brian Connolly University of South Florida, Tampa N. D. B. Connolly Johns Hopkins University Joann Conrad Diablo Valley College Patricia A. Cooper University of Kentucky (retired) Raymond Cormier Longwood U (emeritus) Mary Beth Corrigan Independent Scholar Nathan Michael Corzine Coastal Carolina Community College Boyd Cothran York University Nancy F. Cott Harvard University Cheryl Coulthard Texas A&M University Matthew Countryman University of Michigan Eric Covey Miami University, Oxford OH Deborah Cowen University of Toronto Mari N. Crabtree College of Charleston Clive Craigen Moody Bible Institute-Chicago Heather Curtis Tufts University M. Melissa Daggett San Jacinto College Elizabeth Dale University of Florida Marcus Daniel University of Hawaii Manoa Vicki Daniel University of Wisconsin-Madison Leilah Danielson Northern Arizona University Marsha J. Tyson Darling Adelphi University Joshua Clark Davis University of Baltimore Julie Davis University of Minnesota Karen F. Dimanche Davis Marygrove College Mike Davis Northwest Florida State College Rebecca L. Davis University of Delaware Jan C. Dawson Southwestern University (retired) Melinda Luisa De Jesus California College of the Arts Greta De Jong University of Nevada, Reno Benji De La Piedra Independent Scholar Autumn Quezada De Tavarez Roger Williams University Arleen De Vera SUNY Cortland David Deacon SUNY Oswego Kristen Baldwin Deathridge Appalachian State University Jean-Paul Deguzman UCLA Richard Del Guidice SUNY Potsdam Grace Peña Delgado University of California, Santa Cruz Dawn A. Dennis California State University, Los Angeles Coreen Derifield East Central College Amy Derogatis Michigan State University Anthony Destefanis Otterbein University Sandra Mcgee Deutsch University of Texas at El Paso Hasia R. Diner New York University Steven J. Diner Rutgers University-Newark Rachel Dobson University of Alabama Adam H. Domby College of Charleston Rachel Donaldson College of Charleston Deidra Donmoyer Wesleyan College John Donoghue Loyola University Chicago Stephanie Gonzalez Doo California State University, Long Beach Leslie Dossey Loyola University Chicago Thomas Doughton College of the Holy Cross Jim Downs Connecticut College Omar Dphrepaulezz SUNY Oneonta Jay Driskell Historian Thomas Dublin SUNY Binghamton Melvyn Dubofsky Binghamton University, SUNY (emeritus) Sara Dubow Williams College Mary L. Dudziak Emory University School of Law Brianna E. Dunlap Independent Scholar Kathleen Duval University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Erin Austin Dwyer Oakland University Sarah Dziedzic Independent Scholar Eileen M. Eagan University of Southern Maine Jonathan Earle LSU Alice Echols University of Southern California Ashley Eddy Texas A&M University Douglas Egerton Le Moyne College Helen Diana Eidson Auburn University Robin Einhorn University of California, Berkeley Nazmeih El-Khatib Eastern Michigan University Sarah Elkind San Diego State University Blake Ellis Lone Star College-CyFair Steve Ellwanger California State University, Bakersfield Jari Eloranta Appalachian State University Bette Elsden Independent Scholar Carole Emberton University at Buffalo Michael Emmons University of Delaware Christopher Endy California State University, Los Angeles Jeffrey A. Engel Southern Methodist University Kate Carte Engel Southern Methodist University Lewis A. Erenberg Loyola University Chicago Herbert Ershkowitz Temple University (emeritus) Keona K. Ervin University of Missouri-Columbia Elizabeth Escobedo University of Denver Steve Estes Sonoma State University Melissa Estes Blair Auburn University Christine Eubank Bergen Community College Patricia Evridge Hill San Jose State University Judith Ezekiel Wright State University Joseph J. Fahey Catholic Scholars for Workers Justice Jennifer Fang Oregon State University David Farber University of Kansas Patricia L. Farless University of Central Florida Ashley Farmer Boston University Jared Farmer Stony Brook University Ken Faunce Washington State University, Pullman Kate Fawver CSU Dominguez Hills Frank E. Fee Jr. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (emeritus) Kathleen Feeley University of Redlands Ruth Feldstein Rutgers University-Newark Rae Ferguson University of Rhode Island Robert Hunt Ferguson Western Carolina University Nancy Page Fernandez California State University Fullerton Garrett R. Fesler James River Institute for Archaeology Rosemary Feurer Northern Illinois University Joey A. Fink High Point University Leon Fink University of Illinois at Chicago Mattie Fitch Tarleton State University Monica D. Fitzgerald Saint Mary's College Jon M. Flashnick Independent Historian Lori Flores Stony Brook University Neil Foley SMU Joyce Follet Smith College Kenneth Fones-Wolf West Virginia University Fonna Forman University of California, San Diego Lisa Forman Cody Claremont McKenna College Miriam Forman-Brunell University of Missouri-Kansas City Karlyn Forner Duke University Robert Forrant University of Massachusetts Lowell Jeffrey A. Fortin Emmanuel College Leigh Fought Le Moyne College Catherine Cymone Fourshey Bucknell University Natalie Fousekis California State University, Fullerton Samantha Francois California State University, East Bay Andrew K. Frank Florida State University Stephanie Frank Columbia College Chicago Harry Franqui-Rivera Bloomfield College, New Jersey Max Fraser Yale University Nishani Frazier Miami University Mary Frederickson Miami University of Ohio Leif Fredrickson University of Virginia Estelle Freedman Stanford University David M. P. Freund University of Maryland, College Park Sylvia Frey Tulane University (emeritus) Andrea Friedman Washington University in St. Louis Tami J. Friedman Brock University, St. Catharines, Ont., Canada Jennifer Fronc University of Massachusetts, Amherst Kathleen Fry Washington State University Shannon Frystak East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania Erica Fugger Columbia University, Oral History Laura Sachiko Fugikawa Smith College Ian Funk University of Maryland Donna R Gabaccia University of Toronto Nancy Gabin Purdue University Joseph M. Gabriel Florida State University Laurie S. Gagne Independent Scholar Julie Gallagher Penn State Brandywine Marcia M. Gallo University of Nevada, Las Vegas Shreena Niketa Gandhi Michigan State University Barbara Gannon University of Central Florida John Garcia Boston University Maria Cristina Garcia Cornell University Korey Garibaldi University of Notre Dame Libby Garland Kingsborough Community College, CUNY Irene Garza Oberlin College & Conservatory Rochelle Gatlin City College of San Francisco (retired) Daniel Geary Trinity College Dublin Lily Geismer Claremont McKenna College C. Joseph Genetin-Pilawa George Mason University Donald Gerardi Brooklyn College (emeritus) Daniel Gerling Augustana University Jonathan Gienapp Stanford University Judith Giesberg Villanova University Timothy Gilfoyle Loyola University Chicago James T. Gillam Spelman College (emeritus) Sarah K. Gilleland Binghamton University Robert Gioielli University of Cincinnati Leah S. Glaser Central Conecticut State University Hillary Gleason Laredo Community College Susan A. Glenn University of Washington, Seattle Lorri Glover Saint Louis University Rebecca Anne Goetz New York University David Goldberg Wayne State University Alyosha Goldstein University of New Mexico David Hamilton Golland Governors State University Juan Gomez-Quinones University of California, Los Angeles Rhonda Gonzales The University of Texas at San Antonio Trinidad Gonzales South Texas College Gilbert G. Gonzalez University of California, Irvine Jerry Gonzalez University of Texas at San Antonio Tiffany Gonzalez Texas A&M University Sergio M. González University of Wisconsin-Madison Carly Goodman ACLS Public Fellow Greg Gordon Gonzaga University Linda Gordon New York University Michael A. Gordon University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (emeritus) Wendy M. Gordon SUNY College at Plattsburgh Dayo Gore University of California San Diego Henry G. Gorman Vanderbilt University Elliott Gorn Loyola University Chicago Isaac Gottesman Iowa State University Virginia Gould Tulane University Joseph M. Gowaskie Rider University (emeritus) Jessica Graham University of California, San Diego Manuel Grajales Texas A&M University Donna Graves Preserving California's Japantowns Kristina Graves Independent Scholar Laguana Gray University of Texas at San Antonio Walter D. Greason Monmouth University Hilary N. Green The University of Alabama Michael Green UNLV Alison Collis Greene Mississippi State University Daniel Greene Northwestern University Julie Greene University of Maryland at College Park Mary C. Greenfield Historian James N. Gregory University of Washington Ronald J. Grele Columbia University Zareena Grewal yale University Willie J. Griffin The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Ronnie Grinberg University of Oklahoma Therese Grisham Oakton Community College Joanna Grisinger Northwestern University Ariela Gross University of Southern California Rachel Guberman Indiana University-Bloomington Catherine Gudis University of California at Riverside Jennifer Guglielmo Smith College Thomas A. Guglielmo George Washington University Jennifer Guiliano Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Gayle Gullett Arizona State University Matthew Pratt Guterl Brown University Marta Gutman City University of New York Lisbeth Haas University of California, Santa Cruz Tim Hacsi University of Massachusetts Boston Nancy L. Hagedorn SUNY Fredonia Jonathan Hagel University of Kansas Steven Hahn New York University Jon N. Hale College of Charleston Gwendolyn Midlo Hall Rutgers University, New Brunswick Orit Halpern Concordia university Rick Halpern University of Toronto Jesse Halvorsen University of California - Santa Barbara Tikia K. Hamilton Princeton University, Instructor Françoise N. Hamlin Brown University Thomas D. Hamm Earlham College John Craig Hammond Penn State University Stacie Hanes Independant Scholar Mark G. Hanna UC San Diego Rachel Elizabeth Harding University of Colorado Denver Luke Harlow University of Tennessee, Knoxville David Harrington Watt Temple University Dean Harris Central Oregon Community College Robert L. Harris Jr. Cornell University Alisa Harrison Historian Janet Hart University of Michigan Anthea M. Hartig California Historical Society Jonathan H. Harwell Rollins College Lawrence B.A. Hatter Washington State University Amy M. Hay University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Joseph Heathcott The New School Mary Ann Heiss Kent State University at Kent Jeffrey Helgeson Texas State University Lois Rita Helmbold UNLV (retired) Robin Henry Wichita State University Jason Heppler University of Nebraska at Omaha Katherine A. Hermes Central Connecticut State University Kelly Lytle Hernandez University of California, Los Angeles Laura Hernandez Ehrisman St. Edward's University Antonio Hernandez-Matos University of Puerto Rico-Arecibo Campus Christopher Hickman Tarleton State University Mark D. Higbee Eastern Michigan University Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham Harvard University Andrew Highsmith University of California, Irvine Jennifer Hildebrand SUNY Fredonia Victoria C. Hill St. Edward's University Reiko Hillyer Lewis and Clark College Felipe Hinojosa Texas A&M University Elizabeth Hinton Harvard University Emily K. Hobson University of Nevada, Reno Lillian Hoddeson University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Wesley Hogan Duke University Kristin Hoganson University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Petra Hokanson Independent historian Todd Holmes University of California, Berkeley Thomas C. Holt University of Chicago Danielle Holtz University of Pennsylvania Rona L. Holub Independent Scholar Jane Holzka CUNY LaGuardia Community College Ken Homan, Sjz Society of Jesus Michael Honey University of Washington Tacoma Jane Hong Occidental College Bethany Hopkins Solano Community College George W. Hopkins College of Charleston Caley Horan Massachusetts Institute of Technology Daniel Horowitz Smith College (emeritus) Helen L. Horowitz Smith College David Hostetter Independent Scholar Mazie Hough University of Maine Vince Houghton International Spy Museum Lynn Houlihan California State University East Bay Frederick E. Hoxie University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Suellen Hoy University of Notre Dame Madeline Hsu UT Austin Alvaro Huerta California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Jennifer Hull Colgate University Thomas J. Humphrey Cleveland State University Tera W. Hunter Princeton University David Huyssen University of York Louis Hyman Cornell University Patrick Iber University of Texas at El Paso Daniel Immerwahr Northwestern University Tammy Ingram College of Charleston and Yale University Michael D. Innis-Jiménez University of Alabama Mary Ann Irwin California State University, East Bay Zach Isenhower Louisiana State University Paul Israel Rutgers University, New Brunswick Bill Issel San Francisco State University (emeritus) Anya Jabour University of Montana Lynette A. Jackson University of Illinois at Chicago Thomas Jackson University of North Carolina at Greensboro Robert Jacobs Hiroshima Peace Institute/Hiroshima City University D.A. Jacobson Independent Scholar, Lecturer Matthew Frye Jacobson Yale University Sheyda Jahanbani University of Kansas Eric F. James Historian & Author Kenneth Janken University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Maryann Janosik Independent Historian Volker Janssen California State University, Fullerton Julie Roy Jeffrey Goucher College Hasan Kwame Jeffries The Ohio State University Katherine Jellison Ohio University at Athens Elizabeth L. Jemison Clemson University Einar Jensen Independent Scholar Michael Jin University of Illinois at Chicago Benjamin H. Johnson Loyola University Chicago Joan Marie Johnson Northwestern University Mary Ann Johnson Chicago Women's History Center Michelle S. Johnson Independent Scholar Val Marie Johnson Saint Mary's University Walter Johnson Harvard University Jennifer Dominique Jones University of Alabama Jonathan Jones Binghamton University Nancy Baker Jones Independent Scholar Patrick D. Jones University of Nebraska William Jones Independent Scholar Cherisse Jones-Branch Arkansas State University Frances Jones-Sneed Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Yevette Richards Jordan George Mason University William S. Jordan, Iii University of Akron Moon-Ho Jung University of Washington, Seattle Mitch Kachun Western Michigan University Andrew W. Kahrl University of Virginia S. Deborah Kang California State University San Marcos Daniel Katz Murphy Institute, City University of New York Sherry Katz San Francisco State University Polly Welts Kaufman University of Southern Maine Gregory S. Kealey University of New Brunswick, Fredericton Linda Kealey University of New Brunswick, Fredericton Allan Keller Ohio State University-ATI Kathleen Kennedy Missouri State University Joshua Kercsmar Unity College Christopher J. Kerns University of Colorado Boulder Jennifer Kerns Portland State University Barclay Key University of Arkansas at Little Rock Denise Khor University of Massachusetts Boston Jessie Kindig Columbia University Farina King Northeastern State University Nicole King University of Maryland Baltimore County Shannon King The College of Wooster Stewart King Clackamas Community College Amy Kittelstrom Sonoma State University Matthew Klingle Bowdoin College James T. Kloppenberg Harvard University Sarah Koenig Kalamazoo College Lisa Kohlmeier La Sierra University Shira Kohn Brooklyn College Amy Kohout Colorado College Jeffrey Kolnick Southwest Minnesota State University Heather Miyano Kopelson University of Alabama Nancy Koppelman The Evergreen State College Clayton Koppes Oberlin College Gary J. Kornblith Oberlin College Gerard Koskovich Independent Scholar Wendy Kozol Oberlin College Michael Kramer Northwestern University Paul A. Kramer Vanderbilt University Rachel Kranson University of Pittsburgh Max Krochmal Texas Christian University William Kuby University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Kristy Kulski-Ingram Historian Ethan J. Kytle California State University, Fresno H. Peter L'Orange Idaho State Historic Preservation Office Pamella R. Lach San Diego State University Daniel Lachance Emory University Tim Lacy Northwestern University & Independent Historian Guy Lancaster Independent Scholar Samantha Landau Showa Women's University Michael Todd Landis Tarleton State University Michele Landis Daubrt Stanford Law School Tim Eldridge Landry Louisiana State University Jennifer E. Langdon Creative-Egghead Michael J. Lansing Augsburg College Derek Larson The College of St. Benedict/St. John's University Marjorie P. Lasky Diablo Valley College (emeritus) Carol Lasser Oberlin College Teishan Latner Philadelphia University Chrissy Lau Texas A&M-Corpus Christi Aubrey Lauersdorf The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Bruce Laurie Mass Amherst (emeritus) Justin Law Independent Historian Matthew Law Clark University Mark Lawrence University of Texas at Austin Steven F. Lawson Rutgers University James Le Sueur University of Nebraska Brant T. Lee University of Akron Erica Lee University of California, Berkeley Jacob Lee Indiana University, Bloomington Philip Lee UDC David A. Clarke School of Law Rhonda Mawhood Lee Independent Scholar Robert Lee Brown University Alison Lefkovitz New Jersey Institute of Technology Christopher P. Lehman St. Cloud State University Steve Leikin San Francisco State University Jesse Lemisch` City University of New York Adriane Lentz-Smith Duke University Sharon M. Leon George Mason University Justin Leroy University of California, Davis Anne Lessy Yale University Dan Letwin Penn State University Lisa Levenstein University of North Carolina at Greensboro Bruce Levine University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Susan Levine University of Illinois at Chicago Jacob Leving American University Peter Levy York College Beth Lew-Williams Princeton University Neil S. Lewis University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point (emeritus) Rita Liberti California State University East Bay Alex Lichtenstein Indiana University, Bloomington Nhi Lieu National Coalition of Independent Scholars Leslie Lindenauer Western Connecticut State University Jana Lipman Tulane University Benjamin D. Lisle Colby College Amanda Littauer Northern Illinois University Ellen Litwicki State University of New York at Fredonia Craig Loftin California State University, Fullerton Timothy J. Lombardo University of South Alabama Mark H. Long Sea Education Association Sarah Long Michigan State University Erik Loomis University of Rhode Island Deborah Louis Eastern Kentucky University Laura Lovett University of Massachusetts, Amherst Malinda Maynor Lowery UNC-Chapel Hill Caroline Luce University of California Los Angeles Matthew Luckett California State University, Dominguez Hills Robert Luckett Jackson State University Jennifer Luff Durham University John R. Lundberg Tarrant County College South Tom Lux Pacific Northwest Labor History Association Staughton Craig Lynd Independent Scholar Denise Lynn University of Southern Indiana Cherstin M. Lyon California State University, San Bernardino Mary Lyons-Carmona University of Nebraska at Omaha Dawn B. Mabalon San Francisco State University Robert Macdougall Western University Robert Macieski University of New Hampshire Daryl Maeda University of Colorado Boulder Laurie Maffly-Kipp Washington University in St. Louis Karen W. Mahar Siena College Jose Alberto Maldonado Los Angeles MIssion College Victoria A. Malko California State University, Fresno Lonna M. Malmsheimer Dickinson College (emeritus) Simeon Man UC San Diego Jen Manion Amherst College Kathleen Mapes SUNY Geneseo Alejandra Marchevsky Cal State LA Rebecca Marchiel University of Mississippi Jack D. Marietta University of Arizona (emeritus) Katherine Marino Ohio State University Javier Marion Emmanuel College Norman Markowtz Rutgers University, New Brunswick Abigail Markwyn Carroll University Daniel Markwyn Sonoma State University (emeritus) James Marten Marquette University Daisy Martin Stanford University Frances Martin University of Connecticut, Storrs Monica M. Martinez Brown University Anne M. Martínez University of Groningen Claire M. Massey Saarland University, Germany Andrés Matías-Ortiz Mercy College Valerie J. Matsumoto University of California, Los Angeles Christopher Matthews Montclair State University Glenna Matthews Independent Scholar Brendan Matz The Dalton School Tanya Maus Wilmington College Elaine Tyler May University of Minnesota Heather Mayer Portland Community College Kyle Mays University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Michael McCann University of Washington Erin Mccarthy Public historian Daniel Robert Mcclure California State University, Fullerton Sharon Mcconnell-Sidorick Independent Scholar Malisa Mccown Independent Scholar / University of Nebraska - Lincoln Austin Mccoy University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Kenja Mccray Atlanta Metropolitan State College Erik S. Mcduffie University of Illinois Laura Mcenaney Whittier College Eliza Mcfeely Moorestown Friends School Stephen P. Mcgrath Central Connecticut State University Ivy Farr Mcintyre The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina Sheila Mcintyre SUNY Potsdam John Mckiernan-Gonzalez Texas State University Charles Mckinney Rhodes College J. Gregory Mclamb Haywood Community College John T. Mcnay University of Cincinnati Genna Rae Mcneil University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Karen Mcneill Historian Catherine Mcneur Portland State University Weldon Mcwilliams Dutchess Community College Samira K. Mehta Albright College Gabriel N. Mendes Vanderbilt University Mary E. Mendoza University of Vermont Monica L. Mercado Colgate University Denise Meringolo UMBC April Merleaux Florida International University James H. Merrell Vassar College Keri Leigh Merritt Independent Scholar Jack Metzgar Roosevelt University Deborah Meyer Pensacola State College Michael J. Meyer Missouri Dept. of Transportation, Historic Preservation Section Robert Meyers Walden University (retired) Molly C. Michelmore Washington & Lee University Tony Michels University of Wisconsin-Madison Georgia Abigail Mickey California State Polytechnic University Pomona Elisa Miller Rhode Island College Karen Miller LaGuardia Community College, CUNY Karl Hagstrom Miller University of Virginia Wilbur R. Miller State University of New York, Stony Brook Quincy Mills Vassar College Sarah Milov University of Virginia Nancy Raquel Mirabal University of Maryland, College Park Mary Niall Mitchell Univerity of New Orleans Ronald L. Mize Oregon State University Natalia Molina University of California, San Diego Marian Mollin Virginia Tech Lyra Monteiro Rutgers University-Newark Maria E. Montoya New York University Matthew Mooney Santa Barbara City College Isabell L. Moore UNC Chapel Hill Anthony Mora University of Michigan Elizabeth More Hebrew College Bethany E. Moreton Dartmouth College Brandon Morgan Central New Mexico Community College Jennifer L. Morgan New York University Lynda J. Morgan Mount Holyoke College Zachary R. Morgan Penn State University J. Brent Morris University of South Carolina Beaufort Sara Moslener Central Michigan University Donna Mote University of the South Todd Moye University of North Texas Stephen Mucher Bard College Barry Ross Muchnick St. Mary's College of Maryland Max Mueller University of Nebraska-Lincoln Wanda Mullikin California State University Long Beach Laura K. Muñoz Texas A&M-Corpus Christi Priscilla Murolo Sarah Lawrence College Erin L. Murphy Independent Scholar Kevin P. Murphy University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Sharon Ann Murphy Providence College George Derek Musgrove UMBC Amrita Chakrabarti Myers Indiana University-Bloomington Premilla Nadasen Barnard College Stan Nadel University of Portland--Salzburg Austria Center José Luis Serrano Nájera CSU Long Beach and Fullerton Alice Nash University of Massachusetts, Amherst Steven E. Nash East Tennessee State University Susan R. Near Montana Historical Society Andrew Needham New York University Hayley Negrin New York University Joseph Bruce Nelson Dartmouth College Megan Kate Nelson Writer Caroline Newhall UNC Chapel Hill Jeffrey Nichols Westminster College Michelle Nickerson Loyola University Chicago Becky Nicolaides UCLA Ann Marie Nicolosi The College of New Jersey Laura Beth Nielsen Northwestern University Adriana P. Nieto Metropolitan State University of Denver Lisa Nocks New Jersey Institute of Technology Kenneth Noe Auburn University Catherine Nolan-Ferrell University of Texas at San Antonio Ellen Noonan New York University Scott North Osaka University Holly Kathryn Norton History Colorado Julie Novkov University at Albany, SUNY Jennifer L. Nye University of Massachusetts, Amherst Greg O'Brien UNC-Greensboro Jean O'Brien University of Minnesota Susan Eva O'Donovan University of Memphis Patrick W. O'Neil Methodist University Colleen O'Neill Utah State University Patricia O'Toole Biographer, Columbia University Kathryn Oberdeck University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Leah Lagrone Ochoa Texas Christian University Meredith Oda University of Nevada, Reno Mairin Odle University of Alabama Amy C. Offner University of Pennsylvania Leslie Offutt Vassar College Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar University of Connecticut Danielle R. Olden University of Utah Martin T. Olliff Troy University Dothan Campus Gary Orfield UCLA Annelise Orleck Dartmouth College Paul Ortiz University of Florida Katherine M.B. Osburn Arizona State University Ann Ostendorf Gonzaga University Deirdre Cooper Owens Queens College, CUNY Jerrad P. Pacatte Rutgers University, New Brunswick A. 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Taylor University of South Carolina, Columbia Kerry Taylor The Citadel Orion Teal Missouri Western State University Jeanne Theoharis Brooklyn College Jennifer Thigpen Washington State University, Pullman Douglas Thompson Mercer University Shirley Thompson The University of Texas at Austin Jennifer Thornton University of California, Riverside Tamara Plakins Thornton SUNY Buffalo Coll Thrush University of British Columbia Emily Thuma University of California, Irvine Elizabeth Todd-Breland University of Illinois at Chicago Mary Anne Trasciatti Hofstra University Samuel Truett University of New Mexico Cecilia Tsu University of California, Davis Lauren Turek Trinity University Jennifer Turner Independent Scholar Emily E. L.B. Twarog University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Judy Tzu-Chun Wu University of California, Irvine Sharon Ullman Bryn Mawr College Elisabeth Unruh Northern Illinois University Andrew Urban Rutgers University Cristina V. Groeger Harvard University Omar Valerio-Jiménez University of Texas at San Antonio Anne Valk Williams College Mona Vance-Ali Mississippi University for Women Lara Vapnek St. John's University Joseph Varga Indiana University, Bloomington Zaragosa Vargas University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Colleen Vasconcellos University of West Georgia William Veeder Central New Mexico Community College Daniel Velásquez University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Tamara Venit-Shelton Claremont McKenna College Ron Verzuh Simon Fraser University Dean P. Veseprman Luther College James R. Vice Texas Tech University Margaret A. Villanueva St. Cloud State University (emeritus) Jamie Wagman Saint Mary's College Shirley T. Wajda Michigan State University Daniel Walkowitz New York University Wendy L. Wall Binghamton University, SUNY David Walsh Gettysburg College Eileen Walsh College of the Desert Marcella Sherfy Walter Independent Scholar Mary Elizabeth Walters University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Jason Morgan Ward Mississippi State University Catherine Warren University of Nebraska at Omaha Dwight D. Watson Texas State University Harry L. Watson University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Laura Alice Watt Sonoma State University Stewart Weaver University of Rochester Devra Weber University of California Riverside Sonnee D. Weedn Independent Practitioner Judith Weisenfeld Princeton University Jessica Weiss California State University East Bay Gaylynn Welch State University of New York, Potsdam Alexis Wells-Oghoghomeh Vanderbilt University Joel Wendland Grand Valley State University Tisa Wenger Yale University Anne Mitchell Whisnant East Carolina University Brenda Battleson White University at Buffalo D. Anthony White Sonoma State University E. Frances White New York University (emeritus) John W. White College of Charleston Katherine White Independent Researcher Richard White Stanford University John D. Whitmer Shasta College Erin Whitson Binghamton University, SUNY Robert W. Widell, Jr. University of Rhode Island Seth Wigderson University of Maine at Augusta Hugh Wilford California State University, Long Beach Diana Williams University of Southern California Bridgett Williams-Searle College of Saint Rose Robert Willingham Roanoke College Alan Scot Willis Northern Michigan University Christopher Willoughby Tulane University Jocelyn Wills Brooklyn College, CUNY Karen S. Wilson University of California Los Angeles Veronica A. Wilson University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown Gabriel Winant Yale University Barbara Winslow Brooklyn College, CUNY Daniel Wishnnoff Suffolk County Community College Ryan Wisnor Pacific Northwest Labor History Association Kate Wittenstein Gustavus Adolphus College Victoria Saker Woeste American Bar Foundation Corinne Wohlford Fontbonne University Victoria W. Wolcott University at Buffalo Robert P. Wolensky University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point Montgomery Wolf University of Georgia Robert S. Wolff Central Connecticut State University Adam Wolkoff Independent Scholar Kirsten Wood Florida International University Rue Wood Northwest Vista College Warren C. Wood California Polytechnic University Pomona Robert H. Woodrum Perimeter College of Georgia State University Colleen Woods University of Maryland Cookie Woolner University of Memphis Stephen Wrenn East Stroudsburg University Nathan Wright Bryn Mawr College Ellen Wu Indiana University Bloomington Victoria Wyatt University of Victoria Peter G. Yackel Historian Maggie Yancey The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Virginia Yans Rutgers University New Brunswick Cynthia Gwynne Yaudes Indiana University, Bloomington Eric S. Yellin University of Richmond Mari Yoshihara University of Hawai'i James A. Young Edinboro University (emeritus) Jason Young University at Buffalo Jeremy C. Young Dixie State University Serena Zabin Carleton College Sherry Zane University of Connecticut, Storrs Robert Zecker St. Francis Xavier University Linda Ziegenbein University of Massachusetts, Amherst David Zonderman North Carolina State University

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