Historians Speak Out On Civil Rights And Civil Liberties In Dangerous Times

Historians Speak Out on Civil Rights and Civil Liberties in Dangerous Times
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The 2016 election results raise serious concerns for Americans concerned about the protection of civil rights and basic constitutional liberties. Over 1200 of us have signed a statement placing some of these concerns into stark historical context and suggesting ways to use historical knowledge and awareness of past missteps as part of what we call informed citizenship.”

We urge all Americans to consider carefully the lessons of historical experience as they contemplate next steps, as the Electoral College prepares to convene, and as the President-Elect continues to assemble a cabinet that appears dedicated to rolling back decades of accomplishments and forward progress on equality and inclusion in our gloriously diverse nation. Following are the text and list of signatories on the statement we release today.

As scholars of United States history and related fields, we have experienced concern and alarm as we went from a divisive campaign season to the election of Donald Trump as our president-elect. On the eve of a new administration whose key players have traded in hateful rhetoric and emboldened the harassment of various targets, we urge Americans to be vigilant against a mass violation of civil rights and liberties that could result if such troubling developments continue unchecked. Looking back on World War II and the Cold War, we recognize how easily the rights of people have been suspended during times of great uncertainty. A key lesson of such ordeals has been to never again repeat these mistakes, and so we issue a call to recognize and act upon the critical links between historical knowledge, informed citizenship, and the protection of civil and human rights. During World War II, in the wake of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. officials justified the imprisonment of 120,000 Japanese Americans--U.S. and foreign born, most of whom were U.S. citizens--with the argument of “military necessity.” In the ensuing early Cold War era, the McCarthyist “witch hunts,” House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigations, and registry of communists and their sympathizers destroyed the lives of countless teachers, artists, politicians, and others. These historical persecutions have since been widely repudiated by scholars and elected leaders. For instance, the 1988 Civil Liberties Act signed by President Reagan and passed by a bipartisan Congress acknowledged internment as a mistake fueled by racism. It stated, “The internment of the individuals of Japanese ancestry was caused by racial prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership.” The Cold War witch hunts associated with Joseph McCarthy were roundly denounced by Republicans and Democrats during the 1954 Army-McCarthy Senate hearings. Decades of research, debate, and analysis have brought historians to a consensus that episodes like internment and McCarthyism were misguided and immoral, and should never be repeated. Internationally the United States has been engaged in a war on terror, and domestically the election made clear that we are in an ideological “culture war.” And while we find ourselves in a distinct moment compared to World War II and the Cold War, we are seeing the return of familiar calls against perceived enemies. Alarmingly, justifications for a Muslim registry have cited Japanese American imprisonment during World War II as a credible precedent, and the Professor Watchlist—which speciously identifies “un-patriotic professors”--is eerily similar to the communist registry of the McCarthy era. Looking back to history provides copious lessons on what is at stake when we allow hysteria and untruths to trample people’s rights. We know the consequences, and it is possible, with vigilance and a clear eye on history, to prevent tragedy before it is too late. It is not just that we are at the cusp of what may be a massive rollback of civil rights and liberties, but our culture is also mired in confusion about facts vs. misinformation and a rebellion against knowledge and critical thinking. This makes our present moment doubly dangerous. Though we cannot know for certain what is ahead, we urge all Americans to enter the coming months with lessons of the past in mind, and to draw upon them to stand up for the protection of all people’s civil rights and liberties. We sign this statement as individual scholars. Institutions are listed for identification purposes only. Shana Bernstein Northwestern UniversityShelley Lee Oberlin CollegeKim Cary Warren University of Kansas

Susan AbramWestern Carolina UniversityMartin AdamianCalifornia State University, Los AngelesGretchen A. AdamsTexas Tech UniversityJohn Lewis AdamsBard High School Early College-ClevelandKevin AdamsKent State UniversityCameron AddisAustin Community CollegePaul AdlerHarvard UniversityPeter-Christian AignerThe Graduate Center, CUNYNaila Al HasanUniversity of Maryland, College ParkJose M. AlamilloCalifornia State University Channel IslandsCrystal AlegriaThe Extreme History ProjectShawn Leigh AlexanderUniversity of KansasKeli AllenHistorianHenry Allen JrBunker Hill Community CollegeYvonne AlmoreSt. Louis UniversityBenjamin L. AlpersUniversity of OklahomaRebecca AmatoNew York UniversityEdith AmbroseSoutheastern Louisiana UniversityLisa AndersenThe Juilliard SchoolDavid M. AndersonLouisiana Tech UniversityElecta AndersonEl Toro High SchoolKaren AndersonUniversity of ArizonaM. Christine AndersonXavier UniversityAnne-Marie AngeloUniversity of SussexMarcia AnnisetteYork University , TorontoJoyce AntlerBrandeis UniversityLauren AraizaDenison UniversityHeidi ArdizzoneSaint Louis UniversityMichelle Armstrong-PartidaUniversity of Texas at El PasoStanley Keith ArnoldNorthern Illinois UniversitySilvia ArromBrandeis UniversitySusan Youngblood AshmoreOxford College of Emory UniversitySteven M. AvellaMarquette UniversityJonathon Derek AwtreyLouisiana State UniversityK. Kevyne BaarIndependent ScholarMatthew BabcockUniversity of North Texas at DallasMatthew BackesRutgers UniversityAaron BaeArizona State UniversityJohn BaeslerSaginaw Valley State UniversityBeth BaileyUniversity of KansasTanya BakhmetyevaUniversity of RochesterKathleen BalgleyCal Poly, San Luis Obispo (retired)Shelby M. BalikMetropolitan State University of DenverSarah BallNorthwest Vista CollegeFrank BarajasCalifornia State University Channel IslandsJenifer L. BarclayWashington State UniversityMatthew BarlowUniversity of Massachusetts, AmherstLaura BarracloughYale UniversityDawson BarrettDel Mar CollegeKathryn Barrett-GainesUniversity of Maryland Eastern ShoreEliza Young BarstowOregon State University - CorvallisAnne Clark BartlettUniversity of Washington TacomaAmy BassThe College of New RochelleMatthew BassoUniversity of UtahRay BatchelorTexas A&M University, College StationJennifer BatesSUNY Stony BrookKatie BatzaUniversity of KansasJean BauerPrinceton UniversityKabria BaumgartnerThe College of WoosterAshley Johnson BaveryNorthwestern UniversityWilliam Joseph BeanKent State University at KentJames BeardenSUNY Geneseo (emeritus)Jim BeauchesneBread & Roses Heritage CommitteeSteven BedaUniversity of OregonBrian D. BehnkenIowa State UniversityJustin BehrendSUNY GeneseoMaziar BehroozSan Francisco State UniversityElizabeth BelangerHobart and William Smith CollegesKathleen BelewUniversity of ChicagoDaniel BenderUniversity of TorontoIra Lee BenjaminsIndependent ScholarGavin BenkeBoston UniversityEvan P. BennettFlorida Atlantic UniversityMandy BennettClaremont Grauate University,Martin J. BennettSanta Rosa Junior College (emeritus)Rhianna BennettGeorgia Southern UniversityAlbert I. BergerUniversity of North DakotaDan BergerUniversity of Washington BothellJane BergerMoravian CollegeWilliam BergmannSlippery Rock UniversityCarol BerkinCUNYAaron BermanHampshire CollegeIver BernsteinWashington University St. LouisStephen BerreyUniversity of MichiganDaina Ramey BerryUniversity of TexasJennifer L. BertoletThe George Washington UniversityJim BertoliniPublic HistorianDaniel BessnerUniversity of WashingtonBarbara BetzThe Ohio State UniversitySalonee BhamanYale UniversitySteven BielHarvard UniversityKenneth J. BindasKent State UniversityDonna BinkiewiczCalifornia State University, Long BeachMartha BiondiNorthwestern UniversityElizabeth BishopTexas State University - San MarcosPeter BlackmerUniversity of Massachusetts, AmherstDeborah L. BlackwellTexas A&M International UniversityDarren BlaneyUniversity of MiamiKent BlansettUniversity of Nebraska at OmahaJohn N. BlantonCity College of New York, CUNYJessica BlattMarymount Manhattan CollegeDavid W. BlightYale UniversitySharon BlockUniversity of California, IrvineEthan BlueUniversity of Western AustraliaEladio B. BobadillaDuke UniversityCharles C. BoltonUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroJanet BordelonKehillah Jewish High SchoolFergus M. BordewichIndependent ScholarEileen BorisUniversity of California, Santa BarbaraMelissa BorjaCollege of Staten Island, City University of New YorkDaniel BorsesRiverside City CollegeHeath BowenSt. Thomas Aquinas CollegeKevin BowerNebraska Wesleyan UniversityJ. D. BowersUniversity of MissouriJohn P. BowesEastern Kentucky UniversityKevin BoyleNorthwestern UniversityMark Philip BradleyUniversity of ChicagoLisa M. BradyBoise State UniversitySusan BraggGeorgia Southwestern State UniversityChristopher BramGallatin School of New York UniversityAllyson P. BrantleyUniversity of La VerneTina BraxtonIndependent Historian and ActivistSheila A. BrennanGeorge Mason UniversitySarah BridgerCalifornia Polytechnic State UniversityJennifer BrierUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoStephen BrierCUNY Graduate CenterLaura BriggsUniversity of Massachusetts, AmherstRobert BrighamVassar CollegeMatthew M. BrionesUniversity of ChicagoNancy K. BristowUniversity of Puget SoundKelly BrittFordham UniversityDavid Brodnax, Sr.Trinity Christian CollegeDavid BrodyUniversity of California, DavisCharlotte BrooksBaruch College, CUNYJames F. BrooksUC Santa BarbaraJennifer E. BrooksAuburn UniversityPam BrooksOberlin CollegeJoanne BrownIndependent ScholarLauren Erin BrownMarymount Manhattan CollegeNikki BrownUniversity of New OrleansJoan C. BrowningIndependent Scholar & Freedom RiderDann J. BroyldCentral Connecticut State UniversityJoan Jacobs BrumbergCornell UniversityDavid BrundageUniversity of California, Santa CruzErika BsumekUniversity of Texas at AustinNicholas BuccolaLinfield CollegePeter BuntenHistoric Hudson ValleyGretchen BurgessGeorge Mason UniversityAdrian Burgos. Jr.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignFlannery BurkeSaint Louis UniversityZoe BurkholderMontclair State UniversityKristen D. BurtonLouisiana Tech UniversityMike BurtonSanta Rosa Junior CollegeDaniela BusciglioUniversity of OklahomaMelanie E.L. BushAdelphi UniversityEdouard BustinBoston University (emeritus)Cara CaddooIndiana University, BloomingtonMara CadenYale UniversitySusan K. CahnUniversity at Buffalo, SUNYKathleen A. CairnsCal Poly San Luis ObispoJane E. CalvertUniversity of KentuckyAlbert M. CamarilloStanford UniversityJordan T. CampBrown UniversityMary Baine CampbellBrandeis UniversityEmmet CamposUniversity of Texas at AustinMargot CanadayPrinceton UniversityAmy CanfieldLewis-Clark State CollegeMichael CangemiBinghamton UniversityElaine CareySt. John's UniversityChristopher CarmonaUniversity of Texas Rio Grande ValleyBerenice CarrollPurdue UniversityJustin CarrollIndiana University EastJames M. CarterDrew IniversityJulian CarterCalifornia College of the ArtsTracey L. CarterHistorianLeo CaseyAlbert Shanker InstituteSean CashbaughIndependent ScholarRobert CassanelloUniversity of Central FloridaRachael CassidyUniversity of New MexicoAntonia CastanedaProfessor of History (retired)Pedro CastilloUniversity of California, Santa CruzRobert F. CastroCalifornia State University, FullertonPeter CatapanoCUNY New York City College of TechnologyKathryn CatlinNorthwestern UniversityDerek Charles CatsamUniversity of Texas of the Permian BasinJulian C. ChamblissRollins CollegeAlexandra ChanMonadnock Archaeological ConsultingLaura Renée ChandlerSouth Dakota State UniversityEdmond Y. ChangUniversity of OregonGordon H. ChangStanford UniversityJason Oliver ChangUniversity of Connecticut, StorrsKornel ChangRutgers University-NewarkJoyce ChaplinHarvard UniversityJessica ChapmanWilliams CollegeMarisa ChappellOregon State UniversityKatherine Mellen CharronNC State UniversityRobert ChaseSonoma State UniversitySheree ChaseHistorianPhilip ChasslerUniversity of Massachusetts BostonErnesto ChávezUniversity of Texas at El PasoMarisela ChávezCalifornia State University, Dominguez HillsMiroslava Chavez-GarciaUniversity of California, Santa BarbaraMichael Mark ChemersUniversity of California, Santa CruzAnthony S. ChenNorthwestern UniversityJohn ChengBinghamton UniversityRobert ChernySan Francisco State University (emeritus)Connie ChiangBowdoin CollegeLeisl Carr ChildersUniversity of Northern IowaMichael ChildersUniversity of Northern IowaCatherine Ceniza ChoyUniversity of California, BerkeleySamantha ChristiansenMarywood UniversityJonathan M. ChuUniversity of Massachusetts BostonAlexa Ilene ClaremontHistory Teacher and Independent ScholarDaniel ClarkOakland UniversityElaine R. CleetonState University of New York at GeneseoCatherine ClintonUniversity of Texas at San AntonioLori CluneCalifornia State University, FresnoGenevieve ClutarioHarvard UniversityDustin CohanUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonAndrew Wender CohenSyracuse UniversityJulie CohenCalifornia State Los AngelesLizabeth CohenHarvard UniversityMiriam CohenVassar CollegeDeborah CohnIndiana University BloomingtonPeter ColeWestern Illinois UniversityStephen ColeNorte Dame de Namur UniversityArica L. ColemanIndependent ScholarBrian S. CollierUniversity of Notre DameBruce ConforthUniversity of MichiganTula A ConnellIndependent ScholarCatherine ConnerNorth Carolina State UniversityBrian ConnollyUniversity of South Florida, TampaN. D. B. ConnollyJohns Hopkins UniversityJoann ConradDiablo Valley CollegePatricia A. CooperUniversity of Kentucky (retired)Raymond CormierLongwood U (emeritus)Mary Beth CorriganIndependent ScholarNathan Michael CorzineCoastal Carolina Community CollegeBoyd CothranYork UniversityNancy F. CottHarvard UniversityCheryl CoulthardTexas A&M UniversityMatthew CountrymanUniversity of MichiganEric CoveyMiami University, Oxford OHDeborah CowenUniversity of TorontoMari N. CrabtreeCollege of CharlestonClive CraigenMoody Bible Institute-ChicagoHeather CurtisTufts UniversityM. Melissa DaggettSan Jacinto CollegeElizabeth DaleUniversity of FloridaMarcus DanielUniversity of Hawaii ManoaVicki DanielUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonLeilah DanielsonNorthern Arizona UniversityMarsha J. Tyson DarlingAdelphi UniversityJoshua Clark DavisUniversity of BaltimoreJulie DavisUniversity of MinnesotaKaren F. Dimanche DavisMarygrove CollegeMike DavisNorthwest Florida State CollegeRebecca L. DavisUniversity of DelawareJan C. DawsonSouthwestern University (retired)Melinda Luisa De JesusCalifornia College of the ArtsGreta De JongUniversity of Nevada, RenoBenji De La PiedraIndependent ScholarAutumn Quezada De TavarezRoger Williams UniversityArleen De VeraSUNY CortlandDavid DeaconSUNY OswegoKristen Baldwin DeathridgeAppalachian State UniversityJean-Paul DeguzmanUCLARichard Del GuidiceSUNY PotsdamGrace Peña DelgadoUniversity of California, Santa CruzDawn A. DennisCalifornia State University, Los AngelesCoreen DerifieldEast Central CollegeAmy DerogatisMichigan State UniversityAnthony DestefanisOtterbein UniversitySandra Mcgee DeutschUniversity of Texas at El PasoHasia R. DinerNew York UniversitySteven J. DinerRutgers University-NewarkRachel DobsonUniversity of AlabamaAdam H. DombyCollege of CharlestonRachel DonaldsonCollege of CharlestonDeidra DonmoyerWesleyan CollegeJohn DonoghueLoyola University ChicagoStephanie Gonzalez DooCalifornia State University, Long BeachLeslie DosseyLoyola University ChicagoThomas DoughtonCollege of the Holy CrossJim DownsConnecticut CollegeOmar DphrepaulezzSUNY OneontaJay DriskellHistorianThomas DublinSUNY BinghamtonMelvyn DubofskyBinghamton University, SUNY (emeritus)Sara DubowWilliams CollegeMary L. DudziakEmory University School of LawBrianna E. DunlapIndependent ScholarKathleen DuvalUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillErin Austin DwyerOakland UniversitySarah DziedzicIndependent ScholarEileen M. EaganUniversity of Southern MaineJonathan EarleLSUAlice EcholsUniversity of Southern CaliforniaAshley EddyTexas A&M UniversityDouglas EgertonLe Moyne CollegeHelen Diana EidsonAuburn UniversityRobin EinhornUniversity of California, BerkeleyNazmeih El-KhatibEastern Michigan UniversitySarah ElkindSan Diego State UniversityBlake EllisLone Star College-CyFairSteve EllwangerCalifornia State University, BakersfieldJari ElorantaAppalachian State UniversityBette ElsdenIndependent ScholarCarole EmbertonUniversity at BuffaloMichael EmmonsUniversity of DelawareChristopher EndyCalifornia State University, Los AngelesJeffrey A. EngelSouthern Methodist UniversityKate Carte EngelSouthern Methodist UniversityLewis A. ErenbergLoyola University ChicagoHerbert ErshkowitzTemple University (emeritus)Keona K. ErvinUniversity of Missouri-ColumbiaElizabeth EscobedoUniversity of DenverSteve EstesSonoma State UniversityMelissa Estes BlairAuburn UniversityChristine EubankBergen Community CollegePatricia Evridge HillSan Jose State UniversityJudith EzekielWright State UniversityJoseph J. FaheyCatholic Scholars for Workers JusticeJennifer FangOregon State UniversityDavid FarberUniversity of KansasPatricia L. FarlessUniversity of Central FloridaAshley FarmerBoston UniversityJared FarmerStony Brook UniversityKen FaunceWashington State University, PullmanKate FawverCSU Dominguez HillsFrank E. Fee Jr.University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (emeritus)Kathleen FeeleyUniversity of RedlandsRuth FeldsteinRutgers University-NewarkRae FergusonUniversity of Rhode IslandRobert Hunt FergusonWestern Carolina UniversityNancy Page FernandezCalifornia State University FullertonGarrett R. FeslerJames River Institute for ArchaeologyRosemary FeurerNorthern Illinois UniversityJoey A. FinkHigh Point UniversityLeon FinkUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoMattie FitchTarleton State UniversityMonica D. FitzgeraldSaint Mary's CollegeJon M. FlashnickIndependent HistorianLori FloresStony Brook UniversityNeil FoleySMUJoyce FolletSmith CollegeKenneth Fones-WolfWest Virginia UniversityFonna FormanUniversity of California, San DiegoLisa Forman CodyClaremont McKenna CollegeMiriam Forman-BrunellUniversity of Missouri-Kansas CityKarlyn FornerDuke UniversityRobert ForrantUniversity of Massachusetts LowellJeffrey A. FortinEmmanuel CollegeLeigh FoughtLe Moyne CollegeCatherine Cymone FoursheyBucknell UniversityNatalie FousekisCalifornia State University, FullertonSamantha FrancoisCalifornia State University, East BayAndrew K. FrankFlorida State UniversityStephanie FrankColumbia College ChicagoHarry Franqui-RiveraBloomfield College, New JerseyMax FraserYale UniversityNishani FrazierMiami UniversityMary FredericksonMiami University of OhioLeif FredricksonUniversity of VirginiaEstelle FreedmanStanford UniversityDavid M. P. FreundUniversity of Maryland, College ParkSylvia FreyTulane University (emeritus)Andrea FriedmanWashington University in St. LouisTami J. FriedmanBrock University, St. Catharines, Ont., CanadaJennifer FroncUniversity of Massachusetts, AmherstKathleen FryWashington State UniversityShannon FrystakEast Stroudsburg University of PennsylvaniaErica FuggerColumbia University, Oral HistoryLaura Sachiko FugikawaSmith CollegeIan FunkUniversity of MarylandDonna R GabacciaUniversity of TorontoNancy GabinPurdue UniversityJoseph M. GabrielFlorida State UniversityLaurie S. GagneIndependent ScholarJulie GallagherPenn State BrandywineMarcia M. GalloUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasShreena Niketa GandhiMichigan State UniversityBarbara GannonUniversity of Central FloridaJohn GarciaBoston UniversityMaria Cristina GarciaCornell UniversityKorey GaribaldiUniversity of Notre DameLibby GarlandKingsborough Community College, CUNYIrene GarzaOberlin College & ConservatoryRochelle GatlinCity College of San Francisco (retired)Daniel GearyTrinity College DublinLily GeismerClaremont McKenna CollegeC. Joseph Genetin-PilawaGeorge Mason UniversityDonald GerardiBrooklyn College (emeritus)Daniel GerlingAugustana UniversityJonathan GienappStanford UniversityJudith GiesbergVillanova UniversityTimothy GilfoyleLoyola University ChicagoJames T. GillamSpelman College (emeritus)Sarah K. GillelandBinghamton UniversityRobert GioielliUniversity of CincinnatiLeah S. GlaserCentral Conecticut State UniversityHillary GleasonLaredo Community CollegeSusan A. GlennUniversity of Washington, SeattleLorri GloverSaint Louis UniversityRebecca Anne GoetzNew York UniversityDavid GoldbergWayne State UniversityAlyosha GoldsteinUniversity of New MexicoDavid Hamilton GollandGovernors State UniversityJuan Gomez-QuinonesUniversity of California, Los AngelesRhonda GonzalesThe University of Texas at San AntonioTrinidad GonzalesSouth Texas CollegeGilbert G. GonzalezUniversity of California, IrvineJerry GonzalezUniversity of Texas at San AntonioTiffany GonzalezTexas A&M UniversitySergio M. GonzálezUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonCarly GoodmanACLS Public FellowGreg GordonGonzaga UniversityLinda GordonNew York UniversityMichael A. GordonUniversity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (emeritus)Wendy M. GordonSUNY College at PlattsburghDayo GoreUniversity of California San DiegoHenry G. GormanVanderbilt UniversityElliott GornLoyola University ChicagoIsaac GottesmanIowa State UniversityVirginia GouldTulane UniversityJoseph M. GowaskieRider University (emeritus)Jessica GrahamUniversity of California, San DiegoManuel GrajalesTexas A&M UniversityDonna GravesPreserving California's JapantownsKristina GravesIndependent ScholarLaguana GrayUniversity of Texas at San AntonioWalter D. GreasonMonmouth UniversityHilary N. GreenThe University of AlabamaMichael GreenUNLVAlison Collis GreeneMississippi State UniversityDaniel GreeneNorthwestern UniversityJulie GreeneUniversity of Maryland at College ParkMary C. GreenfieldHistorianJames N. GregoryUniversity of WashingtonRonald J. GreleColumbia UniversityZareena Grewalyale UniversityWillie J. GriffinThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillRonnie GrinbergUniversity of OklahomaTherese GrishamOakton Community CollegeJoanna GrisingerNorthwestern UniversityAriela GrossUniversity of Southern CaliforniaRachel GubermanIndiana University-BloomingtonCatherine GudisUniversity of California at RiversideJennifer GuglielmoSmith CollegeThomas A. GuglielmoGeorge Washington UniversityJennifer GuilianoIndiana University-Purdue University IndianapolisGayle GullettArizona State UniversityMatthew Pratt GuterlBrown UniversityMarta GutmanCity University of New YorkLisbeth HaasUniversity of California, Santa CruzTim HacsiUniversity of Massachusetts BostonNancy L. HagedornSUNY FredoniaJonathan HagelUniversity of KansasSteven HahnNew York UniversityJon N. HaleCollege of CharlestonGwendolyn Midlo HallRutgers University, New BrunswickOrit HalpernConcordia universityRick HalpernUniversity of TorontoJesse HalvorsenUniversity of California - Santa BarbaraTikia K. HamiltonPrinceton University, InstructorFrançoise N. HamlinBrown UniversityThomas D. HammEarlham CollegeJohn Craig HammondPenn State UniversityStacie HanesIndependant ScholarMark G. HannaUC San DiegoRachel Elizabeth HardingUniversity of Colorado DenverLuke HarlowUniversity of Tennessee, KnoxvilleDavid Harrington WattTemple UniversityDean HarrisCentral Oregon Community CollegeRobert L. Harris Jr.Cornell UniversityAlisa HarrisonHistorianJanet HartUniversity of MichiganAnthea M. HartigCalifornia Historical SocietyJonathan H. HarwellRollins CollegeLawrence B.A. HatterWashington State UniversityAmy M. HayUniversity of Texas Rio Grande ValleyJoseph HeathcottThe New SchoolMary Ann HeissKent State University at KentJeffrey HelgesonTexas State UniversityLois Rita HelmboldUNLV (retired)Robin HenryWichita State UniversityJason HepplerUniversity of Nebraska at OmahaKatherine A. HermesCentral Connecticut State UniversityKelly Lytle HernandezUniversity of California, Los AngelesLaura Hernandez EhrismanSt. Edward's UniversityAntonio Hernandez-MatosUniversity of Puerto Rico-Arecibo CampusChristopher HickmanTarleton State UniversityMark D. HigbeeEastern Michigan UniversityEvelyn Brooks HigginbothamHarvard UniversityAndrew HighsmithUniversity of California, IrvineJennifer HildebrandSUNY FredoniaVictoria C. HillSt. Edward's UniversityReiko HillyerLewis and Clark CollegeFelipe HinojosaTexas A&M UniversityElizabeth HintonHarvard UniversityEmily K. HobsonUniversity of Nevada, RenoLillian HoddesonUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignWesley HoganDuke UniversityKristin HogansonUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignPetra HokansonIndependent historianTodd HolmesUniversity of California, BerkeleyThomas C. HoltUniversity of ChicagoDanielle HoltzUniversity of PennsylvaniaRona L. HolubIndependent ScholarJane HolzkaCUNY LaGuardia Community CollegeKen Homan, SjzSociety of JesusMichael HoneyUniversity of Washington TacomaJane HongOccidental CollegeBethany HopkinsSolano Community CollegeGeorge W. HopkinsCollege of CharlestonCaley HoranMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyDaniel HorowitzSmith College (emeritus)Helen L. HorowitzSmith CollegeDavid HostetterIndependent ScholarMazie HoughUniversity of MaineVince HoughtonInternational Spy MuseumLynn HoulihanCalifornia State University East BayFrederick E. HoxieUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignSuellen HoyUniversity of Notre DameMadeline HsuUT AustinAlvaro HuertaCalifornia State Polytechnic University, PomonaJennifer HullColgate UniversityThomas J. HumphreyCleveland State UniversityTera W. HunterPrinceton UniversityDavid HuyssenUniversity of YorkLouis HymanCornell UniversityPatrick IberUniversity of Texas at El PasoDaniel ImmerwahrNorthwestern UniversityTammy IngramCollege of Charleston and Yale UniversityMichael D. Innis-JiménezUniversity of AlabamaMary Ann IrwinCalifornia State University, East BayZach IsenhowerLouisiana State UniversityPaul IsraelRutgers University, New BrunswickBill IsselSan Francisco State University (emeritus)Anya JabourUniversity of MontanaLynette A. JacksonUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoThomas JacksonUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroRobert JacobsHiroshima Peace Institute/Hiroshima City UniversityD.A. JacobsonIndependent Scholar, LecturerMatthew Frye JacobsonYale UniversitySheyda JahanbaniUniversity of KansasEric F. JamesHistorian & AuthorKenneth JankenUniversity of North Carolina Chapel HillMaryann JanosikIndependent HistorianVolker JanssenCalifornia State University, FullertonJulie Roy JeffreyGoucher CollegeHasan Kwame JeffriesThe Ohio State UniversityKatherine JellisonOhio University at AthensElizabeth L. JemisonClemson UniversityEinar JensenIndependent ScholarMichael JinUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoBenjamin H. JohnsonLoyola University ChicagoJoan Marie JohnsonNorthwestern UniversityMary Ann JohnsonChicago Women's History CenterMichelle S. JohnsonIndependent ScholarVal Marie JohnsonSaint Mary's UniversityWalter JohnsonHarvard UniversityJennifer Dominique JonesUniversity of AlabamaJonathan JonesBinghamton UniversityNancy Baker JonesIndependent ScholarPatrick D. JonesUniversity of NebraskaWilliam JonesIndependent ScholarCherisse Jones-BranchArkansas State UniversityFrances Jones-SneedMassachusetts College of Liberal ArtsYevette Richards JordanGeorge Mason UniversityWilliam S. Jordan, IiiUniversity of AkronMoon-Ho JungUniversity of Washington, SeattleMitch KachunWestern Michigan UniversityAndrew W. KahrlUniversity of VirginiaS. Deborah KangCalifornia State University San MarcosDaniel KatzMurphy Institute, City University of New YorkSherry KatzSan Francisco State UniversityPolly Welts KaufmanUniversity of Southern MaineGregory S. KealeyUniversity of New Brunswick, FrederictonLinda KealeyUniversity of New Brunswick, FrederictonAllan KellerOhio State University-ATIKathleen KennedyMissouri State UniversityJoshua KercsmarUnity CollegeChristopher J. Kerns University of Colorado BoulderJennifer KernsPortland State UniversityBarclay KeyUniversity of Arkansas at Little RockDenise KhorUniversity of Massachusetts BostonJessie KindigColumbia UniversityFarina KingNortheastern State UniversityNicole KingUniversity of Maryland Baltimore CountyShannon KingThe College of WoosterStewart KingClackamas Community CollegeAmy KittelstromSonoma State UniversityMatthew KlingleBowdoin CollegeJames T. KloppenbergHarvard UniversitySarah KoenigKalamazoo CollegeLisa KohlmeierLa Sierra UniversityShira KohnBrooklyn CollegeAmy KohoutColorado CollegeJeffrey KolnickSouthwest Minnesota State UniversityHeather Miyano KopelsonUniversity of AlabamaNancy KoppelmanThe Evergreen State CollegeClayton KoppesOberlin CollegeGary J. KornblithOberlin CollegeGerard KoskovichIndependent ScholarWendy KozolOberlin CollegeMichael KramerNorthwestern UniversityPaul A. KramerVanderbilt UniversityRachel KransonUniversity of PittsburghMax KrochmalTexas Christian UniversityWilliam KubyUniversity of Tennessee at ChattanoogaKristy Kulski-IngramHistorianEthan J. KytleCalifornia State University, FresnoH. Peter L'OrangeIdaho State Historic Preservation OfficePamella R. LachSan Diego State UniversityDaniel LachanceEmory UniversityTim LacyNorthwestern University & Independent HistorianGuy LancasterIndependent ScholarSamantha LandauShowa Women's UniversityMichael Todd LandisTarleton State UniversityMichele Landis DaubrtStanford Law SchoolTim Eldridge LandryLouisiana State UniversityJennifer E. LangdonCreative-EggheadMichael J. LansingAugsburg CollegeDerek LarsonThe College of St. Benedict/St. John's UniversityMarjorie P. LaskyDiablo Valley College (emeritus)Carol LasserOberlin CollegeTeishan LatnerPhiladelphia UniversityChrissy LauTexas A&M-Corpus ChristiAubrey LauersdorfThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillBruce LaurieMass Amherst (emeritus)Justin LawIndependent HistorianMatthew LawClark UniversityMark LawrenceUniversity of Texas at AustinSteven F. LawsonRutgers UniversityJames Le SueurUniversity of NebraskaBrant T. LeeUniversity of AkronErica LeeUniversity of California, BerkeleyJacob LeeIndiana University, BloomingtonPhilip LeeUDC David A. Clarke School of LawRhonda Mawhood LeeIndependent ScholarRobert LeeBrown UniversityAlison LefkovitzNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyChristopher P. LehmanSt. Cloud State UniversitySteve LeikinSan Francisco State UniversityJesse Lemisch`City University of New YorkAdriane Lentz-SmithDuke UniversitySharon M. LeonGeorge Mason UniversityJustin LeroyUniversity of California, DavisAnne LessyYale UniversityDan LetwinPenn State UniversityLisa LevensteinUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroBruce LevineUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignSusan LevineUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoJacob LevingAmerican UniversityPeter LevyYork CollegeBeth Lew-WilliamsPrinceton UniversityNeil S. LewisUniversity of Wisconsin, Stevens Point (emeritus)Rita LibertiCalifornia State University East BayAlex LichtensteinIndiana University, BloomingtonNhi LieuNational Coalition of Independent ScholarsLeslie LindenauerWestern Connecticut State UniversityJana LipmanTulane UniversityBenjamin D. LisleColby CollegeAmanda LittauerNorthern Illinois UniversityEllen LitwickiState University of New York at FredoniaCraig LoftinCalifornia State University, FullertonTimothy J. LombardoUniversity of South AlabamaMark H. LongSea Education AssociationSarah LongMichigan State UniversityErik LoomisUniversity of Rhode IslandDeborah LouisEastern Kentucky UniversityLaura LovettUniversity of Massachusetts, AmherstMalinda Maynor LoweryUNC-Chapel HillCaroline LuceUniversity of California Los AngelesMatthew LuckettCalifornia State University, Dominguez HillsRobert LuckettJackson State UniversityJennifer LuffDurham UniversityJohn R. LundbergTarrant County College SouthTom LuxPacific Northwest Labor History AssociationStaughton Craig LyndIndependent ScholarDenise LynnUniversity of Southern IndianaCherstin M. LyonCalifornia State University, San BernardinoMary Lyons-CarmonaUniversity of Nebraska at OmahaDawn B. MabalonSan Francisco State UniversityRobert MacdougallWestern UniversityRobert MacieskiUniversity of New HampshireDaryl MaedaUniversity of Colorado BoulderLaurie Maffly-KippWashington University in St. LouisKaren W. MaharSiena CollegeJose Alberto MaldonadoLos Angeles MIssion CollegeVictoria A. MalkoCalifornia State University, FresnoLonna M. MalmsheimerDickinson College (emeritus)Simeon ManUC San DiegoJen ManionAmherst CollegeKathleen MapesSUNY GeneseoAlejandra MarchevskyCal State LARebecca MarchielUniversity of MississippiJack D. MariettaUniversity of Arizona (emeritus)Katherine MarinoOhio State UniversityJavier MarionEmmanuel CollegeNorman MarkowtzRutgers University, New BrunswickAbigail MarkwynCarroll UniversityDaniel MarkwynSonoma State University (emeritus)James MartenMarquette UniversityDaisy MartinStanford UniversityFrances MartinUniversity of Connecticut, StorrsMonica M. MartinezBrown UniversityAnne M. MartínezUniversity of GroningenClaire M. MasseySaarland University, GermanyAndrés Matías-OrtizMercy CollegeValerie J. MatsumotoUniversity of California, Los AngelesChristopher MatthewsMontclair State UniversityGlenna MatthewsIndependent ScholarBrendan MatzThe Dalton SchoolTanya MausWilmington CollegeElaine Tyler MayUniversity of MinnesotaHeather MayerPortland Community CollegeKyle MaysUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillMichael McCannUniversity of WashingtonErin MccarthyPublic historianDaniel Robert McclureCalifornia State University, FullertonSharon Mcconnell-SidorickIndependent ScholarMalisa MccownIndependent Scholar / University of Nebraska - LincolnAustin MccoyUniversity of Michigan, Ann ArborKenja MccrayAtlanta Metropolitan State CollegeErik S. McduffieUniversity of IllinoisLaura McenaneyWhittier CollegeEliza McfeelyMoorestown Friends SchoolStephen P. McgrathCentral Connecticut State UniversityIvy Farr McintyreThe Citadel, The Military College of South CarolinaSheila McintyreSUNY PotsdamJohn Mckiernan-GonzalezTexas State UniversityCharles MckinneyRhodes CollegeJ. Gregory MclambHaywood Community CollegeJohn T. McnayUniversity of CincinnatiGenna Rae McneilUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillKaren McneillHistorianCatherine McneurPortland State UniversityWeldon McwilliamsDutchess Community CollegeSamira K. MehtaAlbright CollegeGabriel N. MendesVanderbilt UniversityMary E. MendozaUniversity of VermontMonica L. MercadoColgate UniversityDenise MeringoloUMBCApril MerleauxFlorida International UniversityJames H. MerrellVassar CollegeKeri Leigh MerrittIndependent ScholarJack MetzgarRoosevelt UniversityDeborah MeyerPensacola State CollegeMichael J. MeyerMissouri Dept. of Transportation, Historic Preservation SectionRobert MeyersWalden University (retired)Molly C. MichelmoreWashington & Lee UniversityTony MichelsUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonGeorgia Abigail MickeyCalifornia State Polytechnic University PomonaElisa MillerRhode Island CollegeKaren MillerLaGuardia Community College, CUNYKarl Hagstrom MillerUniversity of VirginiaWilbur R. 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TaylorUniversity of South Carolina, ColumbiaKerry TaylorThe CitadelOrion TealMissouri Western State UniversityJeanne TheoharisBrooklyn CollegeJennifer ThigpenWashington State University, PullmanDouglas ThompsonMercer UniversityShirley ThompsonThe University of Texas at AustinJennifer ThorntonUniversity of California, RiversideTamara Plakins ThorntonSUNY BuffaloColl ThrushUniversity of British ColumbiaEmily ThumaUniversity of California, IrvineElizabeth Todd-BrelandUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoMary Anne TrasciattiHofstra UniversitySamuel TruettUniversity of New MexicoCecilia TsuUniversity of California, DavisLauren TurekTrinity UniversityJennifer TurnerIndependent ScholarEmily E. L.B. TwarogUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignJudy Tzu-Chun WuUniversity of California, IrvineSharon UllmanBryn Mawr CollegeElisabeth UnruhNorthern Illinois UniversityAndrew UrbanRutgers UniversityCristina V. GroegerHarvard UniversityOmar Valerio-JiménezUniversity of Texas at San AntonioAnne ValkWilliams CollegeMona Vance-AliMississippi University for WomenLara VapnekSt. John's UniversityJoseph VargaIndiana University, BloomingtonZaragosa VargasUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillColleen VasconcellosUniversity of West GeorgiaWilliam VeederCentral New Mexico Community CollegeDaniel VelásquezUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillTamara Venit-SheltonClaremont McKenna CollegeRon VerzuhSimon Fraser UniversityDean P. VeseprmanLuther CollegeJames R. ViceTexas Tech UniversityMargaret A. VillanuevaSt. Cloud State University (emeritus)Jamie WagmanSaint Mary's CollegeShirley T. WajdaMichigan State UniversityDaniel WalkowitzNew York UniversityWendy L. WallBinghamton University, SUNYDavid WalshGettysburg CollegeEileen WalshCollege of the DesertMarcella Sherfy WalterIndependent ScholarMary Elizabeth WaltersUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillJason Morgan WardMississippi State UniversityCatherine WarrenUniversity of Nebraska at OmahaDwight D. WatsonTexas State UniversityHarry L. WatsonUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillLaura Alice WattSonoma State UniversityStewart WeaverUniversity of RochesterDevra WeberUniversity of California RiversideSonnee D. WeednIndependent PractitionerJudith WeisenfeldPrinceton UniversityJessica WeissCalifornia State University East BayGaylynn WelchState University of New York, PotsdamAlexis Wells-OghoghomehVanderbilt UniversityJoel WendlandGrand Valley State UniversityTisa WengerYale UniversityAnne Mitchell WhisnantEast Carolina UniversityBrenda Battleson WhiteUniversity at BuffaloD. Anthony WhiteSonoma State UniversityE. Frances WhiteNew York University (emeritus)John W. WhiteCollege of CharlestonKatherine WhiteIndependent ResearcherRichard WhiteStanford UniversityJohn D. WhitmerShasta CollegeErin WhitsonBinghamton University, SUNYRobert W. Widell, Jr.University of Rhode IslandSeth WigdersonUniversity of Maine at AugustaHugh WilfordCalifornia State University, Long BeachDiana WilliamsUniversity of Southern CaliforniaBridgett Williams-SearleCollege of Saint RoseRobert WillinghamRoanoke CollegeAlan Scot WillisNorthern Michigan UniversityChristopher WilloughbyTulane UniversityJocelyn WillsBrooklyn College, CUNYKaren S. WilsonUniversity of California Los AngelesVeronica A. WilsonUniversity of Pittsburgh at JohnstownGabriel WinantYale UniversityBarbara WinslowBrooklyn College, CUNYDaniel WishnnoffSuffolk County Community CollegeRyan WisnorPacific Northwest Labor History AssociationKate WittensteinGustavus Adolphus CollegeVictoria Saker WoesteAmerican Bar FoundationCorinne WohlfordFontbonne UniversityVictoria W. WolcottUniversity at BuffaloRobert P. 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