Our culture is smitten with the notion that technology can save us - or at least create great business opportunities! Cargill, for example, is working on a new food technology that mimics stevia, a sugar substitute derived from plant leaves, for the "exploding sports nutrition market."
Cargill's new product, EverSweet, uses genetically engineered yeast to convert sugar molecules to mimic the properties of stevia, with no need for the plant itself.
It was developed using synthetic biology (or "synbio" for short), a new form of genetic engineering that involves changing or creating DNA to artificially synthesize compounds rather than extract them from natural sources - a process sometimes referred to as GMOs 2.0.
On June 1, U.S. Food and Drug Administration cleared the way for EverSweet with a "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) designation. Eventually it could be used in "everything from dairy to tabletop sweeteners and alcoholic beverages, but low or zero calorie beverages are the sweet spot," according to Food Navigator.
And so begins the next new food technology revolution: corporations racing to move food production from the land to the lab without laws or regulations in place that require scientific assessments or transparency.
How will they sell synthetic biology to consumers?
A big challenge facing synthetic biology is that today's consumers want fresh natural foods with simple clear labels - what Food Business News dubbed the "trend of the year" last year.
"Why would we want synbio foods?" Eve Turrow Paul, a writer and corporate brand advisor, asked rhetorically in The Huffington Post. "Well, a few reasons. Number one on the list is climate change."
Climate change is the number one reason for synthetic biology? What about capturing the exploding sports nutrition market?
Therein lies the PR challenge facing new food technologies: how to position food products created with strange-sounding lab techniques for the purposes of patents and profits as something safe that actually benefits consumers.
The largest agribusiness, food and synthetic biology companies got together in San Francisco in 2014 to discuss this PR challenge.
Dana Perls of Friends of the Earth, who attended the meeting, described it as "an alarming insight into the synthetic biology industry's process of creating a sugar-coated media narrative to confuse the public, ignore the risks, and claim the mantle of 'sustainability' for potentially profitable new synthetic biology products."
PR strategists at the meeting recommended avoiding terms like "synthetic biology" and "genetic engineering" (too scary, too much backlash), and suggested going with more vague descriptions such as "fermentation derived" and "nature identical."
They recommended focusing the media on stories of hope and promise, capturing public emotion, and making food activists "feel like we are we are all marching under the same banner" for food sustainability, transparency and food sovereignty.
Somebody was listening. The story about Cargill's big stevia opportunity didn't mention genetic engineering or synthetic biology, but did describe "fermentation as a path." It ended with a promise that Cargill has nothing to hide about how the ingredients are made and will clearly and accurately label products.
"We have targeted this space in a completely transparent manner," said Steve Fabro, Cargill global programs marketing manager.
The new ingredient coincides with big changes at Cargill. After two years of declining profits, America's largest private company is repositioning itself "to satisfy consumers in Western markets who are shying away from the mainstream food brands that rely on low-cost, commoditized ingredients that have been the specialty of companies like Cargill," reported Jacob Bunge in the Wall Street Journal.
Consumers "want to know what's in their food, who made it, what kind of company is it, are they ethical, how do they treat animals?" Cargill Chief Executive David MacLennan told Bunge.
With synthetic biology ingredients, that could prove to be a challenge.
When asked exactly how they plan to label EverSweet, Cargill communications lead Kelly Sheehan responded via email,
"Consumers should be able to tell the difference on a label between stevia from leaf and steviol glycosides produced through fermentation. Stevia from leaf in the US is currently labeled as 'stevia leaf extract.' EverSweet will be labeled in the US as 'steviol glycosides' or 'Reb M and Reb D.' In the EU the expectation is EverSweet would receive a modified E number to differentiate the two products."
Sheehan added, "Cargill is committed to transparency and sharing product information at Cargill.com from 'stevia leaf extract' to 'non-GMO stevia leaf extract.'"
Confusing? Perhaps, but labeling decisions may be left up to the companies. As with first-generation GMOs, labeling is not required in the U.S. (although Vermont will require GMO labeling starting July 1 unless Congress intervenes) and companies are free to market their products as "natural" (although FDA is reviewing use of that term). There are no safety standards and no testing requirements for foods developed with synthetic biology.
This lax system pleases the companies eager to patent new food technologies.
As Perls described the synthetic biology PR meeting, "A clear theme at the meeting was that the fewer government regulations the better, and industry self-regulation is best. There was a general consensus in the room that the public should not be concerned about a lack of data on safety; however, the internal and self-funded corporate studies are proprietary and cannot be shared with the public."
Where have we heard this story before?
Proprietary information, patents, lack of transparency and industry self-scrutiny have been the hallmarks of first-generation GMOs - and the fuel for growing consumer distrust and demands for transparency that have caught the food industry off guard.
The corporations that profit from traditional GMOs - primarily Monsanto, Dow and other big chemical-seed companies - have responded to the backlash as big corporations often do: by throwing huge amounts of money at PR operations to attack critics and spin their products as necessary to feed the world.
The marketing promises have failed to materialize. A May 2016 report by the National Academy of Sciences found no evidence that GMO crops had changed the rate of increase in yields, and no clear benefits for small, impoverished farms in developing countries.
Nevertheless, GMO proponents claim, as Bill Gates did in a Wall Street Journal interview, that Africans will starve unless they embrace climate-friendly, vitamin-enriched GMO crops. Gates neglected to mention that these crops still don't exist after 20 years of trials and promises.
Instead, most genetically engineered crops are herbicide-tolerant crops that are raising concerns about health problems linked to chemical exposures. These crops have increased sales of chemicals owned by the same corporations that own the patents for GMO seeds - an excellent profit model, but one that is turning out to be not so great for health and ecology.
The promise of synthetic biology
The same sorts of promises that failed to materialize in 20 years of GMO crops are fueling the buzz around next-generation genetic engineering.
Synthetic biology techniques "could deliver more-nutritious crops that thrive with less water, land, and energy, and fewer chemical inputs, in more variable climates and on lands that otherwise would not support intensive farming," reported Josie Garthwaite in The Atlantic.
While proponents focus on possible future benefits, skeptics are raising concerns about risks and unintended consequences. With no pre-market safety assessments for synthetic biology foods, environmental and health impacts are largely unknown, but critics say there is one area in which the dangers are already apparent: economic damage to indigenous farmers as lab-grown compounds replace field-grown crops. Farmers in Paraguay and Kenya, for example, depend on stevia crops.
"By competing with poor farmers and misleading consumers about the origins of its ingredients, EverSweet and other examples of synthetic biology are generating bitterness at both ends of the product chain," wrote Jim Thomas and Silvia Rabiero of The ETC Group in Project Syndicate.
The path forward for synthetic biology
As battle lines get drawn on the new food frontier, some difficult questions arise. How can we ensure that innovations in agriculture benefit society and consumers? How can new food technologies developed to capture markets, patents and corporate profits ever prioritize sustainability, food security and climate change solutions?
It's going to take more than marketing slogans, and the clock is ticking to figure it out as new technologies race forward.
As Adele Peters reported in Fast Company, a new gene morphing technology called CRISPR, which makes it "possible to quickly and easily edit DNA," is coming to a supermarket near you.
"If editing a single gene might have taken years with older techniques, now it can happen in a matter of days with a single grad student," Peters reported.
What could possibly go wrong?
In April, the U.S. Department of Agriculture decided that a CRISPR mushroom will not be subject to regulation.
On June 1, scientists announced the start of a 10-year project that aims to synthetically create an entire human genome. The project is called Human Genome Project - Write, "because it is aimed at writing the DNA of life," reported Andrew Pollack in The New York Times.
On June 8, the National Academy of Sciences released a report about "gene drives," a new type of genetic engineering that can spread gene modifications throughout an entire population of organisms, permanently altering a species.
Gene drives "are not ready to be released into the environment," NAS said in its press release calling for "more research and robust assessment." Unfortunately, the NAS report failed to articulate a precautionary regulatory framework that would protect people and the environment.
Could synthetic biology, gene editing and gene drives have benefits for society? Possibly yes. But will they? And what are the risks?
If corporations are allowed to deploy genetic engineering technologies for commercial gain with no government oversight, no independent scientific assessments, and no transparency, benefits to society will be left off the menu and consumers will be in the dark about what we're eating and feeding our families.
Stacy Malkan is the co-director of U.S. Right to Know, a nonprofit food industry research group. She also does consulting work with Friends of the Earth. Follow her on Twitter @StacyMalkan