With his APA President's Address in 1998, Martin Seligman raised the need to balance the tendency for psychological research to focus on psychopathology, by researching what caused people to flourish and to lead fulfilling lives. Seligman's intention was for this to complement the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which focused largely on pathology.
A tremendous amount of fantastic scientific research has been carried out into examining subjects such as happiness, human strengths, optimism, building resilience, which is enabling people to thrive and to go from good to great. While it was refreshing to study these subjects, there needed to be caution that it wasn't taken to the extremes, which is why there has been a recent emergence of what is being called the Second Wave of Positive Psychology or Positive Psychology 2.0. This second wave is taking into consideration that there are times when positive psychology subjects may not have a positive intention, e.g. there are times when pessimism and caution may be more appropriate or that it would be best to underplay a strength.
I was fortunate to recently be able to speak to Dr Tim Lomas, co-author of the book, Second Wave Positive Psychology: Embracing the Dark Side of Life. We discussed what the second wave is and what people need to learn about it.
When I asked Tim what the Second Wave of Positive Psychology was, his answer was,
"rather than undermining the field of positive psychology, we just felt that with all this research that's been happening over the last 10 years or so the field is moving into a slightly different plane, a slightly different level, as it were, and we just gave a label to this with 'second wave positive psychology.' It's not like we're suggesting everyone else has been doing things as a first wave approach and here we are with this bold new second wave approach, it's more a way of recognising trends and patterns that have been ongoing in the field for the last 10-15 years, and to critique in positive and negative. For example, recognising that we need to engage with the difficulties of life as they can actually be useful and valuable in some respects and be conducive to flourishing, so just grouping all of this emergent research under the label of second wave."
Following up on this by asking whether this is something that is now needed in the field of positive psychology, Tim responded:
"The field would get along fine without us, but I think it can hopefully bring something to the field that is useful. It can open up this conceptual space where people can bring in slightly more unusual qualities and topics of interest; for example, things that could be considered part of the darker aspects of life, uncomfortable emotions, the fact that these can be part of positive psychology.
I think it's recognising that things that we might deem to be negative can still serve flourishing and adaptation and wellbeing, so it can perhaps expand our way, expand our horizons and concern in the field."
For me, the second wave is an important and exciting development for the field of positive psychology, which can help it to become a more mature and well-rounded discipline. By focusing research on both the positive and the negative as ways for people to flourish, this allows for a broader scope of interventions for people to use, in order to thrive and be successful.
To find out more information about Dr Tim Lomas and the groundbreaking work that he is doing, please go to Tim's website, http://www.drtimlomas.com/
If you'd like to order your copy of Second Wave of Positive Psychology: Embracing the Dark Side of Life, it is currently available.