On Tuesday the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) took another step to make good on the Obama administration's pledge to limit U.S. greenhouse gas emissions 26-28 percent by 2025 by proposing the first methane emissions rules for the nation's oil and gas industry.
Reducing emissions of methane, which have 25 times the heat-trapping capacity of carbon dioxide, is a central component of the administration's overall climate strategy. The administration's goal is to cut methane emissions 40 to 45 percent from 2012 levels by 2025. The EPA expects to release its final methane rules next year, after it hears public comments.
"Today, through our cost-effective proposed standards, we are underscoring our commitment to reducing the pollution fueling climate change and protecting public health while supporting responsible energy development, transparency and accountability," EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy said in a statement. "Cleaner-burning energy sources like natural gas are key compliance options for our Clean Power Plan and we are committed to ensuring safe and responsible production that supports a robust clean energy economy."
The rules target new and modified oil and natural gas operations, but as Greenwire reports, they could eventually trigger regulation of methane leakage from the entire sector (subscription). The proposed rules call for oil and gas processing and transmission facilities to locate and repair methane leaks, capture natural gas from hydraulically fractured oil wells and limit emissions from equipment -- actions netting climate benefits of $120 to $150 million in 2025, according to the EPA.
As they are now, the proposed rules could achieve a cut of 25 to 30 percent by 2025, according to Janet McCabe, acting assistant EPA administrator for air and radiation. To meet the full 40-45 percent goal, the administration expects to rely on voluntary efforts, state regulations and a Department of the Interior rule covering drilling on public lands.
A study conducted by scientists at Colorado State University and published in Environmental Science & Technology, quantifies emissions from thousands of gathering facilities, which consolidate gas from wells and feed it into processing plants or pipelines. These emissions have been largely unreflected in federal statistics, the report says, but may be the largest methane source in the oil and gas supply chain. These newly identified emissions would increase total emissions from that chain in EPA's current Greenhouse Gas Inventory by approximately 25 percent.
Climate Action Declaration
Muslim scholars from 20 countries issued an "Islamic Declaration on Climate Change" on Tuesday, calling on the world's 1.6 billion Muslims to work to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and to commit to renewable energy sources.
The declaration drawing on Islamic teachings and to be presented at the global climate summit in Paris was finalized at the International Islamic Climate Change Symposium in Istanbul this week.
"The pace of global climate change today is of a different order of magnitude from the gradual changes that previously occurred throughout the most recent era, the Cenozoic," the declaration reads. "Moreover, it is human-induced: we have now become a force dominating nature. Our species, though selected to be a caretaker or steward on the earth, has been the cause of such corruption and devastation on it that we are in danger [of] ending life as we know it on our planet."
The declaration asks Muslim countries, particularly those that are "well-off" and "oil-producing," to lead the greenhouse gas phase out and to provide financial and technical support for climate change efforts by less-affluent states.
Alaska and Climate Change
Climate change could exacerbate one of Alaska's worst wildfire seasons -- one that has burned some 5 million acres of tundra and forests and ignited fears that large stores of carbon are being emitted into the atmosphere.
"We really need to start considering the long-term implications of big fires that are being predicted," said Nicky Sundt, a climate change expert for the World Wildlife Fund. "In the Arctic, you have a lot of carbon locked up, and the fires will release that. We need to start thinking seriously about the carbon emissions from these fires."
A recent Climate Central analysis shows that in the last 60 years large wildfires in Alaska have essentially doubled and that the wildfire season is 40 percent (35 days) longer than it was in the 1950s, mainly due to rapid warming in the globe's northern reaches.
"The primary driver is temperature. The warmer we get, the more fires we seem to get," Mike Flannigan, a wildland fire expert at the University of Alberta, said. "We need a 15 percent increase in precipitation to account for the warming. Very few climate models suggest there will be an increase in precipitation to compensate for the increase in temperature. The fuels will be drier in the future and it will be easy to start the spread of fire."
Of particular concern -- drying of peat, which then becomes susceptible to burning and release of centuries' worth of carbon in the span of a few hours of intense fire. Teresa Hollingsworth, a researcher and ecology professor with the University of Alaska Fairbanks, told NPR that many of the state's fires burned seven feet deep, where vast amounts of carbon are stored.
"The carbon released from fire emissions during a large fire year in Alaska is roughly equivalent to 1 percent of the global fossil fuel and land use emissions," said Dave McGuire, a research scientist and leader of the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, in a recent press release.
Obama is visiting the state at the end of this month to highlight climate change impacts that go beyond fires.
"In Alaska, glaciers are melting," Obama said in a video released last week. "The hunting and fishing upon which generations have depended for their way of life and for their jobs are being threatened. Storm surges once held at bay now endanger entire villages. As Alaskan permafrost melts, some homes are even sinking into the ground. The state's God-given natural treasures are all at risk."
The Climate Post offers a rundown of the week in climate and energy news. It is produced each Thursday by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.