More than 100 countries, including the United States, Colombia, Mexico, and the European Union, have formed a "high ambition coalition" in an effort to secure a final agreement at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. But members will not be satisfied with merely reaching a final agreement--they want an ambitious solution that includes a mechanism to review and raise countries' emissions commitments every five years, that creates a unified tracking system to monitor countries' progress on meeting their emissions goals, that recognizes the proposed 1.5 degrees Celsius temperature goal, and that contains a climate finance package.
"This is an ambition coalition," said Giza Gaspar Martins, chair of the group of the 48 most vulnerable countries to climate change. "This is also a coalition that is open to recognizing the difficulties of others, because alone, we can't achieve that high mitigation ambition that we have."
European climate action and energy commissioner Miguel Arias Canete said the newly released draft text for the climate deal was not "bold enough, and not ambitious enough."
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, in address to the conference, echoed the need for a more in the final text. "We didn't come to Paris to build a ceiling that contains all that we ever hope to do," he said. "We came to Paris to build a floor on which we can and must altogether continue to build."
Negotiations are now happening around the clock in the final days of the conference, set to wrap up Dec.11. Nearly every country has declared discontent with the current draft, but none are rejecting the agreement either.
United States Attempts to Spur Momentum on Paris Talks with Funding Announcement
Yesterday the United States announced a doubling of the grant funding it provides to help developing countries adapt to climate change, a pledge that Reuters reports might help "clinch a climate pact." The pledge announced by Secretary of State John Kerry is part of what the United States views as its contribution to a promise made in 2009 by developed countries to mobilize $100 billion a year in public and private money by 2020 to deal with impacts such as droughts, flooding, and sea level rise. The $860 million, which must be approved by Congress, would come from the State Department and Treasury budgets and would be distributed through both U.S. mechanisms, such as USAID, and multi-lateral systems like the Green Climate Fund.
"If we just continue down our current path, with too many people sitting on their hands and waiting for someone else to take responsibility, the damage is going to increase exponentially," Kerry said. "To cut to the chase: Unless the global community takes bold steps now to transition away from a high-carbon economy, we are facing unthinkable harm to our habitat, our infrastructure, our food production, our water supplies, and potentially to life itself."
The announcement appeared intended to give momentum to talks stalled by resistance by China and India to an outside monitoring system for emissions and to submit to a review process for pollution reduction plans.
"This impasse has slowed progress to a crawl, with the U.S. lacking leverage and China and India seemingly content to wait out the process," said Paul Bledsoe, a former Clinton administration climate adviser who is attending the talks. "The decision to double U.S. adaptation funding itself is a strategic play to head off loss and damage calls by developing nations. This is why Kerry is pushing these lines right now."
Study: Worldwide Carbon Emissions May Fall in 2015
As ministers work on a deal to cut post-2020 carbon emissions at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris, a study published in the journal Nature Climate Change suggests that growth in those emissions has stalled, at least temporarily. Specifically, the authors say that in 2015 worldwide greenhouse gas emissions will fall, marking the first time they will have done so during a period of substantial economic growth. The reason? A decrease in coal consumption by China as well as increased use of renewables and decreased growth in demand for oil and gas. But it isn't clear whether the decrease in China's emissions is temporary due to the slowing economy or long-term due to changes in how the country consumes energy.
Using preliminary data through October 2015, the authors projected that total carbon emissions this year will be down by 220 million tons. But the decrease--0.6 percent--is so small that it may not be a decrease and could actually be a slight increase because of the margin of error. Nevertheless, the figure appears to mark a departure from an average annual growth of 2.4 percent over the last decade.
Corinne Le Quéré, director of the Tyndall Centre at the University of East Anglia and one of the paper's authors, said that the Chinese think their emissions are going to rise, suggesting a resumption of an upward trajectory. Moreover, the emissions of India, which has emerged as a key player at the Paris talks, are likely to have risen 6.7 percent this year. The study authors warned that for global emissions to peak soon, part of India's new energy--designed to spur economic growth and connect 300 million people to the grid--must come from low-carbon sources. And even more must be done to avoid dangerous climate change.
"Global emissions need to decrease to near zero to achieve climate stabilization," said Le Quéré. "We are still emitting massive amounts of CO2 annually--around 36 billion tonnes from fossil fuels and industry alone. There is a long way to near zero emissions. Today's news is encouraging, but world leaders at COP21 need to agree on the substantial emission reductions needed to keep warming below two degrees Celsius."
The Climate Post offers a rundown of the week in climate and energy news. It is produced each Thursday by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.