Pope Francis's highly anticipated encyclical on the environment, which may play a key role in the United Nations climate change conference in Paris later this year, was released today. Among its key focuses: climate change is real, it is getting worse and humans are a major cause.
"Each year sees the disappearance of thousands of plants and animal species which we will never know, which our children will never see, because they have been lost forever," the Pope wrote. "Climate change is a global problem with grave implications: environmental, social, economic, political and for the distribution of goods. It represents one of the principal challenges facing humanity in our day."
"The foreign debt of poor countries has become a way of controlling them, yet this is not the case where ecological debt is concerned," he wrote. "In different ways, developing countries, where the most important reserves of the biosphere are found, continue to fuel the development of richer countries at the cost of their own present and future. The developed countries ought to help pay this debt by significantly limiting their consumption of non-renewable energy and by assisting poorer countries to support policies and programmes of sustainable development."
A leaked draft of the encyclical published Monday in an Italian magazine sparked bipartisan reaction. Democrats greeted it as a vindication of the science of climate change and of their party's policy proposals to address it (subscription). Some prominent Republicans -- such as GOP presidential hopeful Jeb Bush -- argued that a religious leader has no place in crafting policy. Former South Carolina Rep. Bob Inglis said the encyclical will force skeptics and critics of environmental regulations in the GOP to do some "soul searching."
"There's a lot of Republicans who may have in the past been critical of fellow Catholics who they call 'cafeteria Catholics' who don't follow the church's teachings -- say, on abortion," said Inglis. "But now, are they going to become 'cafeteria Catholics' themselves and not follow the church's teachings on climate change?"
Carbon Tax Bill Aims to Trade a "Bad" for a "Good"
Senators Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island and Brian Schatz of Hawaii last week introduced the American Opportunity Carbon Fee Act, a bill that would impose a $45 per metric ton fee on carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels -- a figure reflecting the federal government's estimate of the so-called social cost of carbon, a measure of damage attributable to climate change. The location of the announcement, the American Enterprise Institute, was "meant to convey an offer of partnership" with conservatives on what the two Democratic senators hope is a "rebooted debate on climate change that focuses on legislation over science," ClimateWire reported (subscription).
The bill's gradually rising tax (two percent per year) and credits for carbon sequestration are aimed at reducing emissions 80 percent below 2005 levels. According to a summary of the legislation, the bill would cut emissions by at least 40 percent by 2025. That amount represents a far greater reduction than the 26 to 28 percent that the United States has pledged to achieve through regulatory changes over the same period and would amount to a cut deeper than that proposed by other countries in the run up to discussions surrounding a climate deal in Paris later this year.
Whitehouse and Schatz argued that lack of a carbon tax is a $700 billion annual subsidy to the fossil fuel industry.
"A carbon fee can repair that market failure by incorporating unpriced damage into the costs of fossil fuels," Whitehouse said. "Then the free market -- not industry, not government -- can drive the best energy mix is for the country, with everyone competing on level ground."
Fossil fuel consumption in British Columbia is down since the Canadian province implemented a carbon tax. New analysis of that tax's performance by the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions and the University of Ottawa's Institute of the Environment and Sustainable Prosperity describes the tax as straight out of the economist's playbook.
Co-author and Nicholas Institute Environmental Economics Program Director Brian Murray describes the tax as a "textbook" prescription because of its wide coverage and revenue neutrality, meaning that revenues from the tax go back to British Columbia households and businesses.
"Economists often favor revenue-neutral carbon taxation because it has the potential to enhance economic growth by lowering distortions from the current tax system," said Murray. "Given these characteristics, the British Columbia carbon tax may provide the purest example of the economist's carbon tax prescription in practice."
Similar to revenues from the British Columbia carbon tax, fees from the proposed carbon tax would be recycled back to businesses and individuals. The projected $2 trillion over the course of the first decade would be invested in "American competitiveness" through tax credits, corporate tax cuts, and funding for states, which Whitehouse and Schatz say would help low-income and rural communities transition to new industries.
White House Raises $4 Billion to Fight Climate Change
President Barack Obama hopes to spark clean energy innovation with $4 billion in private sector investments and executive actions, officials announced at the White House's Clean Energy Investment Summit Tuesday. The funding is in response to a call for increased private sector research into low-carbon energy technology. It doubles the funding goal announced in February, when the Obama administration launched its Clean Energy Investment Initiative.
The Clean Energy Impact Investment Center will operate under the Energy Department to speed other financing for clean energy. The idea, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz noted, is to "make the department's resources ... more readily available to the public."
He added: "The United States and other countries are providing substantial financial support to the development and commercialization of clean energy technologies but, if were to achieve climate goals, it is imperative that we find ways to incentivize the global capital markets to invest in clean energy. The U.S. government is addressing the need for new financing through a variety of programs that support clean energy technology through the research and development, demonstration and deployment stages."
The Climate Post offers a rundown of the week in climate and energy news. It is produced each Thursday by Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.