Conservative hero Ben Carson is worried about American teenagers joining ISIS. But it's not because of "radical Islam." It's because of new high school history standards.
America's right wing, you see, is terrified of history because it is always sentimentalizing it. Many of its arguments rely on a feeling of nostalgia for "good old days," that appeals almost exclusively to aging whites. That means that a more accurate history, one that considers groups that are traditionally marginalized -- women, people of color, Native Americans, immigrants and the poor -- don't necessarily sit that well. Their stories, the stories of the downtrodden, crush the false narrative that many conservatives like to imagine -- that of a idyllic past marred by the New Deal, women's liberation and civil rights.
In Jefferson County, Colorado, a school board recently tried to limit the historical curriculum to only events that would, "promote citizenship, patriotism, essentials and benefits of the free-market system, respect for authority and respect for individual rights." Needless to say, much of American history -- the Great Depression, the Trail of Tears and the internment of Japanese-Americans -- would, under those parameters, need to obfuscated. The Republic National Committee, meanwhile, has issued a statement calling the new Advanced Placement U.S. History standards "radically revisionist." But conservatives may want to take the plank out of their own eye before examining the speck in their neighbors. Here are the most important distortions of history the right has promoted recently.
Before Welfare, Everything Was Awesome
Example: Marvin Olasky's "Tragedy of American Compassion," which argues, "Americans in urban areas a century ago faced many of the problems we face today, and they came up with truly compassionate solutions."
The Problem: As with most conservative revisionism, the idea is that before nasty programs like welfare, the poor did just fine, because private charity aided them. Many conservatives will argue that the War on Poverty has done nothing to reduce poverty and instead we should rely on private charity. But the War on Poverty has actually done much to eliminate poverty and private charity could never fill that chasm that would open up if federal poverty programs were eliminated. So how did we get rid of poverty before government? The answer is that there never was a mythical time without government.
As Mike Konczal writes,
There has always been a mixed welfare state made up of private and public organizations throughout our country's history. Outdoor relief, or cash assistance outside of institutions, was an early legal responsibility of American towns, counties, and parishes from colonial times through the early nineteenth century.
Later, Congress established a pension system for civil war veterans that consumed about 25 percent of all government spending. Rather than "welfare queens" being a post New-Deal development, some 40 states had programs to support single mothers in 1920. In fact, far from being an invention of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and liberals, social insurance programs are staple in civil society. Frederik Pedersen finds that back in the 10th through 12th centuries, Iceland had an extensive social welfare program. Rome, too, had a system of public support designed to aid poor children.
Elizabeth Bruenig notes that the purely voluntary Church-based social insurance many Christians adore never existed. Conservatives ignore the fact that the church was often acting in accord with the state, "You couldn't just not tithe; the Church would get it out of you somehow, and even had specific statutes related to methods of tithing which fit it into the schema of secular taxation." Islamic public assistance was also a hybrid church-state institution. The idea that there has ever been a successful purely voluntary public assistance program is a conservative myth invented to justify dismantling anti-poverty programs in the name of a utopian fantasy.
Basically Everything About Slavery
Example: Recently convicted felon and conservative columnist Dinesh D'Souza's book, The End of Racism, provides some great examples of rewriting race. D'Souza says of slavery, "No free workers enjoyed a comparable social security system from birth until death." Later, he writes, "Masters... encouraged the family unit which basically remained intact." He concludes, "In summary, the American slave was treated like property, which is to say, pretty well."
The Problem: Conservatives in the U.S. have a race problem, specifically that many of them believe that blacks are "primarily responsible for their own success or failure" and that government programs only get in the way. And conservative politicians tend to racialize welfare programs to decrease support for them. To believe that black Americans would have been better off without government intervention, you have to pretend history doesn't matter.
As Marx notes, people, "The tradition of all dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brains of the living." There simply is little mobility for black Americans today because the legacy of slavery, Jim Crow and housing segregation still weighs heavily. A recent study finds that counties with higher concentrations of slave ownership in 1870 had higher levels of poverty and racial inequality in 2000. Further, white people in these counties harbor more racial resentment.
That's because when slavery permeated society -- the legal structure, culture, science -- nothing was left untouched by racism and racial hierarchy. The conservative "I built this myself" mentality denies that most wealth is passed from generation to generation, and so is privilege. Erasing the memory of racial hierarchy allows conservatives and Americans to pretend that individual effort, rather than structural racism, is keeping black people down.
So what was slavery really like? Jennifer Hallam writes, "Economic benefit almost always outweighed considerations of family ties for planters, even those who were advocates of long-lasting relationships between slaves." Rather than being "relatively mild," slavery relied on brutality and violence, the horrors of which are described in Frances Ellen Watkins Harper's "Bury Me in a Free Land":
I could not sleep if I saw the lash
Drinking her blood with each fearful gash,
And I saw her babes torn from her breast,
Like trembling doves from their parent nest.
I'd shudder and start if I heard the bay
Of bloodhounds seizing their human prey,
And I heard the captive plead in vain
As they bound afresh his galling chain.
If I saw young girls from their mother's arms
Bartered and sold for their youthful charms,
My eye would flash with a mournful flame,
My death-paled cheek grow red with shame.
And, of course, racism and racial hierarchy didn't end when slavery was formally abolished, but rather continued through local policies, terrorism and violence. This violence was often orchestrated at the highest levels of government. Consider, for example, the FBI's attempts to discredit MLK or the assassination of Black Panther Fred Hampton.
In his response to Phil Robertson's sentimentalism about the Jim Crow era last year, Ta-Nehisi Coates cites Freddie Moore:
The corpse of 16-year-old Freddie Moore, his face showing signs of a severe beating, hands bound, remained hanging for at least 24 hours from a metal girder on the old, hand-cranked swing bridge spanning Bayou Lafourche. Hanged by the neck the night of Oct. 11, 1933, in a mob lynching, the black youth had been accused in the death of a neighbor, a white girl.
U.S. foreign policy
Example: Conservative foreign policy is dictated by a small coterie of conquistadors. These people are called "neo-conservatives." Some people claim neoconservatives have no uniting vision; in fact, the basis of neo-conservativism is a belief that imperial violence can spread democracy. To maintain this myth, the long history of imperialism must be re-written. Thus the official RNC statement on the AP controversy laments that "the [AP] Framework excludes discussion of the U.S. military (no battles, commanders or heroes)..." and "presents a biased and inaccurate view of many important events in American history, including American involvement in WWII, and the development of and victory in the Cold War."The Problem: Imperial violence cannot spread democracy. America's foreign policy history is littered with failed attempts to impose our ideas on others -- often with the ulterior motive of stealing resources. As Mark Twain writes, "There must be two Americas: one that sets the captive free, and one that takes a once-captive's new freedom away from him, and picks a quarrel with him with nothing to found it on; then kills him to get his land." Among the other examples of horrifying and cynical use of American power conservatives may wish to avoid:
- Reagan supporting the Contras, a fascist junta: Much of Reagan's presidency is now hagiography, rather than history. Because of this, it's often hard to remember how awful the group that Reagan called "the moral equivalent of our Founding Fathers" truly was. Truth is, the Nicaraguan Contras were known for their brutality. And where did Reagan get the money to support the brutes? Why, by selling weapons to Iran. Yes, the Iran that George W. Bush later called a member of the Axis of Evil. The International Court of Justice ruled against the U.S. for violating another country's sovereignty and laying mines in Nicaragua's harbors, but the U.S. ignored the decision.
- Chemical weapons: Before the U.S. joined forces with Assad to fight ISIS, he was public enemy number one for allegedly using chemical weapons on civilian populations. But the U.S. has used chemical weapons on a range and scale that Assad could hardly even fathom. During the Vietnam war, the U.S. dumped between 12 and 18 million gallons of Agent Orange on the Vietnamese people. At least one million Vietnamese had defects or disabilities caused by U.S. chemical attacks. And those chemical weapons we judged Saddam Hussein so harshly for using? The U.S. not only knew the attacks were coming, we gave Hussein intelligence on strategic sites to attack.
- Screwing up democracy: Sure, America supports democracy -- unless that democracy will do something to hurt business interests. Among acts that qualify: nationalizing oil fields, raising minimum wages and boosting literacy. In place, we installed brutal, murderous dictators -- but only ones that would push through economic "reforms" and play ball when we needed.
- Prolonging the Vietnam War: Richard Nixon intentionally sabotaged the Paris Peace Accords to undermine Lyndon Johnson's chances of winning the Presidency. In the wake of the failure, the war continued for two long and bloody years, made more horrifying by Nixon's secret carpet bombing of Cambodia.
English philosopher Michael Oakeshott defines conservatism as "to prefer the familiar to the unknown, to prefer the tried to the untried, fact to mystery, the actual to the possible, the limited to the unbounded, the near to the distant, the sufficient to the superabundant, the convenient to the perfect, present laughter to utopian bliss."
There was a time when conservatism was a philosophy concerned primarily with wrestling with and understanding tradition and the limits of human reason and ability. However, these days conservatism is reactionary -- it has been imbued with racism, conspiratorial thinking and a hyper-individualistic capitalism. Instead of questioning the limits of reason, it has jettisoned it. In its place remains free market dogma, bad Biblical interpretation and a sentimentalized past. In place of reason and argument, most conservatives rely on fantasy and reminiscence. Allowing conservatives to redefine the past will be incredibly harmful.
As George Orwell notes, "He who controls the past controls the future. He who controls the present controls the past."This article originally appeared on Salon.