The ruling “all but assures future Presidential stonewalling of Congress,” a dissenting judge wrote.
The committee wants a federal appeals court to order former White House counsel Don McGahn to testify as it examines potential obstruction of justice by the president.
House Democrats subpoenaed McGahn to testify after the Mueller report laid out several instances of the counsel refusing to carry out orders.
The Justice Department's confirmation about the president's son and former White House counsel is part of a newly unredacted filing ordered by a judge.
The White House has repeatedly blocked Democrats' efforts to question the former White House counsel, who was a key witness in the Mueller report.
President Donald Trump also told ABC News that he never told Don McGahn to fire special counsel Robert Mueller, despite McGahn's testimony.
The House will also more forward with enforcing subpoenas against Attorney General William Barr and ex-White House counsel Don McGahn.
Rep. Jerry Nadler also subpoenaed the chief of staff to former White House counsel Don McGahn.
House Judiciary Chairman Jerry Nadler vows accountability after the former White House counsel, Don McGahn defied a subpoena.
The House Judiciary Committee chair also pilloried Trump for blocking testimony from former White House counsel Don McGahn, holding a hearing featuring an empty chair.