Hosni Mubarak

The autocrat ruled Egypt for nearly three decades until explosive protests drove him out of power in 2011.
Morsi was elected president in 2012 in the country's first free elections following the ouster the year before of longtime leader Hosni Mubarak.
He was the first leader to face trial after the Arab Spring uprisings that swept the region.
Rachel Aspden’s book Generation Revolution: On the Front Line Between Tradition and Change in the Middle East begins not
In the months after Hosni Mubarak stepped down as president it seemed as though some invisible force was trying to turn what had been a peaceful revolution into a deeply divided and violent one. There were riots, assassinations and acts of arson; all committed by unknown perpetrators.
As we drove there, the revolutionaries discussed their fear of disclosing their identities lest they be arrested. But I had been assured by the prime minister that they would be safe. I trusted him to keep to his word, and my confidence had grown since the snipers had stopped shooting the previous night.
On the night of January 28 - or "Angry Friday" as it became known - mobs of bullies began to circle the protesters gathered at Tahrir Square. On each side of the Square, small groups of 10 to 15 started charging at the demonstrators. It was a test; a way of assessing how those inside the Square would react.
In the years following the events of September 11, 2001, the image of the US in the Middle East was at its lowest. There were demonstrations against the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq in Egypt and elsewhere, along with calls to boycott US products.
As of 2010, there was a strong feeling among the general public that Egypt was approaching a major political, social and cultural overhaul. It was a sentiment that had begun to take root earlier, in 2004. But by 2010, after 30 years in power, the time had come for the presidency to be passed from Mubarak the father to Mubarak the son.
Egyptian Nobel peace laureate Mohamed El Baradei - also self-exiled - tweeted: "Liliane Daoud, ma'am you have gratitude and
The Middle East has turned hostile to Christians and other religious minorities. The Iraqi Christian community has been devastated. Syria's civil war loosed the murderous Islamic State on Christians and others. Libya's disintegration opened the nation to IS fighters bent on killing anyone of the wrong faith.
Given the disastrous course of Egypt's transition since President Mubarak stepped down from office in February 2011, many commentators are quick to claim 20/20 hindsight.
Egypt's "deep state" did not disappear with Mubarak and his regime. Yes, removing an authoritative dictator who ruled for nearly 30 years was indeed a challenge and a major feat. However, as the past five years have shown us, we clearly were not prepared for what came next.
CAIRO -- I had a dream like any other Egyptian. I lived through the unforgettable moment when Mubarak was obliged to cede the throne. I was waiting for a new Egypt, for a different future to come. Now, we are living through the worst moments Egypt has ever lived. Yet even in this complex reality, we still have hope.
The problem with "digital democracy" can be synthesized down to the willingness by those in power within the Bush and Obama administrations (and later, Google) to embrace the incomplete musings of a naïve young man -- Jared Cohen -- about issues he was ill-positioned to proffer.
Egyptians were building a "civilian, modern and developed state that upholds the values of democracy and freedom."
In the wake of a failed policy (to create a unified and empowered Middle East fighting ISIS), Washington and its allies now must find a new approach. Arabs want governments that respect personal dignity, protect their individual liberty and provide them economic opportunity. The old tactics of dictators insinuating fear and division to preserve stability and prevent terrorism no longer works.
Paris struck home and given human nature, it's hard not to take sides--even unconsciously.