Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman won the prize for discoveries that enabled the development of effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19.
Many of the 140 bearded men competing attempt to copy the “Papa” persona and appearance adopted by Hemingway in his later years.
It was long stated that the Nobel Prize winner died in 1973 of complications from prostate cancer, but the poet’s driver argued for decades that he was poisoned.
The laureates "have for many years promoted the right to criticize power and protect the fundamental rights of citizens” in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
Annie Ernaux, 82, was cited for “the courage and clinical acuity with which she uncovers the roots, estrangements and collective restraints of personal memory."
The prize was awarded equally to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal and K. Barry Sharpless for coming up with a way to snap molecules together.
Each year, the prize is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences “for groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex systems.”
Swedish scientist Svante Pääbo won the 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on human evolution.
Winning researchers included two scientists who studied the sex lives of constipated scorpions, and a person who made a life-size crash test dummy of a moose.
Trooper Lukasz Lipert also spoke with Walesa in Polish about their homeland and the anti-communist movement Walesa helped lead.