The conflict reflects pressure mounted by consumers and government officials over the global environmental crisis.
As lawsuits seeking climate damages from fossil fuel giants ramp up, a new carbon-pricing plan looks to protect them.
The oil giant's refusal to answer European lawmakers' questions could result in a loss of lobbying access.
Exxon sued the government over the $2 million fine, despite making $7.84 billion in profit last year.
While the new administration will most likely try to boost oil and natural gas production in the US, the environmental community is prepared to fight back every step of the way.