russia air strikes
Peace talks in Geneva aimed at ending the 5-year-long war were put on hold because of the offensive.
Whole families were among the victims, according to a monitoring group.
And France has asked other European Union member states to join the fight.
Getting all the key players in the same room for the first time, particularly Saudi Arabia and its arch-enemy Iran, constituted a considerable diplomatic shift in dynamics. However, getting all on the same page remains a colossal, but not insurmountable, challenge.
"The Russians are using scorched earth policy," said one insurgent leader.
NATO says Russia made 'no real effort' to go after ISIS.