The state's new law will prohibit the sale of flavored cigarettes and vaping cartridges but exempts hookah products, loose-leaf pipe tobacco and premium cigars.
Health experts say vaping can increase the risk of developing COVID-19 complications and spreading the virus to others.
Thirty-nine state attorneys generals plan to examine the popular e-cigarette company's marketing and sales practices.
Though more than five dozen people have died after using vape products, the CDC says that illnesses and injuries continue to decline.
The Democratic governor is hoping it will curb the increase in young people using e-cigarettes.
Menthol- and tobacco-flavored cartridges will still be legal, despite President Trump's earlier call to ban all flavored vaping products.
The popular e-cigarette company banned vaping at most of its U.S. offices, but employees are defying the rules.
The state's Attorney General Xavier Becerra said Juul, the U.S. market leader in e-cigarettes, engages in practices that are endangering children's lives.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention called the discovery a "breakthrough" in the investigation into the outbreak.
According to the CDC, at least 37 people have died from vaping-related causes this year, as of the end of October.